Philosophy of Buddhism and its main provisions

In this article, you will learn:

  • How and who gave rise to the ancient philosophy of Buddhism

  • What are the main ideas of the philosophy of Buddhism

  • What are the three main schools of Buddhism

  • Buddhism is religion or philosophy

A billion people - that is how many followers of Buddhism in the world there are at the moment, and this number is constantly growing. The central concept of the philosophy of Buddhism is based on the fact that all human life is suffering, and one should strive to end it. In this article we will touch upon the topic of how the philosophy of Buddhism was formed, what are its main principles.

How the ancient philosophy of Buddhism originated

In the middle of the 1st millennium BC, Brahmanism prevailed in India. In the north of the country, a current arose that opposed him - Buddhism ... Culture, society and economy were in deepest decline. Traditional institutions and tribal associations were losing their influence, and class relations were being formed. Sages traveled around the country and offered to look at the spiritual and physical life of a person in a different way. Among the teachings that suggested looking at the world around us from a different angle was Buddhism, which received the greatest sympathy of the people.

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Buddha and his teachings

Most scholars agree that the founder of the original concepts of the philosophy of Buddhism was a historical person. He was a prince of the Shakya tribe, born in 560 BC. in the north-east of India. According to legend, his name was Siddhartha Gautama, he spent a carefree and joyful childhood in the palace, but after that he realized the horror of the idea of ​​a cycle of endless reincarnations and saw how much suffering and grief there is in the world around him. The prince went on a journey for seven years, communicated with wise Indians, trying to find an answer to the question: "What can save people from suffering?"

One day, while sitting under the Bodhi tree, he realized how to answer his question. Buddha in translation from Sanskrit means "enlightened", "awakened". Stunned by his discovery, the prince spent several more days under the tree, then went to the people to tell about the new teaching.

The first sermon was heard by the people in the city of Benares. There he was joined by five of his former disciples, who had previously turned away from him because of their rejection of asceticism. For the next 40 years, he talked about his teachings throughout the north and center of India. He was joined by many supporters who were close to the basic tenets of the philosophy of Buddhism.

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  • Learn more Basic concepts of Buddhist philosophy: concise and clear

  • The philosophy of Buddhism was formed within the framework of various currents and schools of this teaching. It is a set of meaningful beliefs about a person, the world and knowledge of reality. Unlike the Abrahamic and other monotheistic religions, in the philosophy of Buddhism there is no concept of a sinful body and an immortal soul, which awaits eternal torment for an unrighteous life. There is simply a person: good and evil deeds committed by him throughout his life and reflected in his karma. There are many special terms in the philosophy of Buddhism, and we will now clarify the central ones:

  • Karma. A key concept in Buddhist philosophy that explains how and why certain things happen to us. It tells us that all the actions we do have consequences.

Incarnations.

This is a phenomenon of spiritual life in the philosophy of Buddhism, in which after the death of a living being, his karma passes to another living creature. This concept differs from the "transmigration of souls" and the Hindu concept "atman" meaning the eternal soul.

Enlightenment.

  1. In such a spiritual and mental state, free from negative emotions, thoughts, desires, a person perceives the world as it is.

  2. Nirvana.

  3. Through deep thought and meditation, Buddha formulated one of the main goals in the philosophy of Buddhism: the pursuit of awareness of one's soul, based on the renunciation of worldly goods, renunciation of comfortable living. Achieving the state of nirvana gives a person control over his mind, he ceases to worry too much about what other people think, loses his dependence on things, his soul begins to develop.

  4. Samsara, or "wheel of life".

In the philosophy of Buddhism, all living beings, except for those who have attained enlightenment, are in this state.

  • The Buddha believed that it was advisable to follow the "middle path." You don't need to give up all the benefits of civilization and be an ascetic, but you shouldn't bathe in luxury either. A person needs to find a middle ground between these two extremes.

  • What is the philosophy of Buddhism: 4 noble truths

  • There are 4 great discoveries of Buddha, 4 truths of the philosophy of Buddhism:

  • Suffering is the essence of human life. In the philosophy of Buddhism, the symbol of existence is a fire that devours itself, bringing only suffering. The world around us is impermanent and changes all the time. Everything that is created will be destroyed in the end.

  • A person's desires are the source of his suffering. Our deep attachment to the material realms of existence makes us hungry for life. The agony intensifies as this desire grows.

  • Freedom from desire leads to freedom from suffering. In nirvana, a person ceases to feel a thirst for life and is freed from passions. This is accompanied by a feeling of bliss and tranquility, frees from the transmigration of souls.

  • The eightfold or "middle" path of salvation is abstaining from extremes in Buddhist philosophy, which helps to free oneself from passions.

  • The eightfold path of salvation presupposes the faithful:

understanding - it is very important to comprehend and accept that our world consists of suffering and grief;

intentions - you need to stop being selfish, get rid of ambitions and desires;

speech - a person should always watch his words, they should broadcast good and not harm other people;

deeds - do not commit evil deeds, strive to do only good;

  1. way of life - in the philosophy of Buddhism it is forbidden to harm living beings, only this can free a person from torment;

  2. efforts - to keep track of all your thoughts and not let evil in them, to be attuned to good;

  3. thoughts - our body is the main source of evil, if you free yourself from its desires, then you free yourself from suffering;

concentration - one must constantly practice the eightfold path and be concentrated on it. The first and second stages are called prajdna, they are needed to attain wisdom. The third, fourth and fifth cultivate correct behavior and set up the moral compass (shila). The sixth, seventh and eighth are called samadha, and they help to curb the mind.

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  2. Features of Buddhism philosophy

  3. Three main jewels are distinguished in Buddhism:

Buddha - they can be like any person who achieved enlightenment and the founder of the teaching itself.

Dharma is the Quintedness of the main ideas of Buddhism philosophy, the fact that they can give people who followed the Buddha and adopted all the dogmas of his teachings.

Sangha - Community of Buddhists who are unquestioned by dogma of this religious flow. Fighting three poisons - This is a way of Buddhists to find three jewels:

  • Distance from the truth of existence and ignorance. Bodily passion and thirst for life, which lead to suffering. The central concept of the philosophy of Buddhism is suffering.

  • The inability to take the world and events as they are, anger and lack of restraint. According to Buddhism philosophy, a person constantly suffers spiritually and bodily. Birth, death, illness and ailments Throughout life, is suffering. This state of affairs is considered abnormal, so the philosophy of Buddhism contributes to liberation from this.

  • 3 Basic schools of Buddhism as a philosophy Exist

Three main philosophical schools of Buddhism

Rinzai Zen

which were formed at different times of the existence of this exercise:

Theravada (Kynyana)

  1. . The followers of this school are not worshiped by cult religious objects, they do not have holy martyrs who can support them, no paradise and hell, there are no rituals. Responsibility for the deliverance from reincarnations completely lies on a person, it depends on the Togokak, it acts, lives and thinks. The ideal of this philosophy is a monk that reaches enlightenment. Philosophy Buddhism Mahayana

  2. . Saints appear (Institute of Bodhisatv), who assist people on the way of deliverance from suffering. There is paradise, images with buddha and with Bodhisatans. Now even a person living a worldly life can escape from suffering. Vajrayana . Control of self-consciousness and meditation - the central concepts of this tantric school of Buddhism philosophy. The figure below will show how the three main schools of Buddhism philosophy are distributed in different countries: Written sources of Buddhism philosophy Pali Canon "Ti-Power" or "Tripitak" is a book that is the main source of Buddhist philosophy. The name from Sanskrit is translated as "three baskets", because initially the texts about Buddhism wrote on the leaves of palm trees and placed in the basket. This canon consists of three parts and recorded in the Language Pali:

  3. Vinal Power - A set of 227 rules regulating the life of Buddhist monks. It contains information on discipline, ceremonies and ethical prescriptions.

SUTTA PASSIVE, Contains books " Dhammapada

intentions - you need to stop being selfish, get rid of ambitions and desires;

Rinzai is the most important Japanese Zen movement, also founded by a monk who was not very satisfied with Japanese Buddhism and decided to travel to China (from where Buddhism came to Japan) to learn the true understanding of this religion. Thanks to him, the fundamental principles of Buddhism (Chinese Ch'an) were spread to the Japanese islands, called in the new dialect Zen. This is the beginning of one of two major Zen traditions;

"What does" the path to truth "mean (Buddhist Proverbs Collection), and"

Jataka

"- a collection of stories about previous incarnations of the Buddha. In addition to the two listed book, this part includes the Buddha philosophy itself.

Abidhamma Pierceda

- These are texts, permeated by Buddhist philosophy, her perception of life, as well as metaphysics, which is in Buddhism.

The above books from all the flows of Buddhism are especially curly. The sacred canon of the philosophy of Buddhism among students of Mahayana is

"Prajnapalasta Sutra

"(Teaching about perfect wisdom). For them, this is the revelation of the Buddha.

Soto Zen

Buddhism is a religion or philosophy

intentions - you need to stop being selfish, get rid of ambitions and desires;

In Buddhism philosophy, there is no concept of God as the Creator of all the intangible and material, an all-powerful creature that created the world. This is the difference from the ideas familiar to Russians about religion. In the cosmology of Buddhism there are creatures "Deva", they are mistakenly called "gods". They did not create the universe and did not manage fate, these are ordinary people from another reality.

Question: "Do you believe in Buddha?" - meaningless in the philosophy of Buddhism, since Buddha is a real historical character who lived about 2500 years ago. He was an ordinary person, like the rest of us.

Many people think of Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama) when they mention Buddha, this is true, but only partially. Any adherent of Buddhism who has attained enlightenment can be considered a Buddha, and there were so many of them. After all, the word "buddha" from Sanskrit is translated as "awakened", "enlightened." But it is customary to write only the Great Buddhas with a capital letter, such as the Present Buddha (Shakyamuni) and the Great Buddhas of the past, who, according to the canons of different Buddhist schools, from 6 to 21. The names of all the others are written with a small letter.

5 myths about the philosophy of Buddhism

One of the main provisions of the philosophy of Buddhism is non-violence against living beings. This bears little resemblance to pacifism, which denies all violence. A Buddhist can defend himself in case of danger, which is reflected in popular culture. Documentary and feature films often show a monk mastering martial arts. Great masters use every opportunity to avoid combat, but in a critical situation they accept it with dignity.

When Buddhists are mentioned, many people have the following picture: a meditating person in the lotus position, who sings mantras. Researchers have studied this issue and found that a very small part of Buddhists meditate on a regular basis, including monks.

Scientists interviewed adherents of various religious trends, it turned out that supporters of the philosophy of Buddhism meditate, on average, even less than supporters of other philosophical schools. More than half of the meditators do this irregularly.

An untrained reader might think that this is the image of Buddha Shakyamuni - the first enlightened person. It's a delusion. A laughing fat man who has assumed the lotus position is Budai or Hotei, considered in the philosophy of Buddhism to be the next incarnation of one of the Buddhas - the bodhisattva Maitreya. According to legend, he brings happiness, material well-being and fun to people. Although he hardly looked like a fat man, because Maitrei spent a lot of time traveling.

There is a mistaken stereotype that self-infliction of pain and suffering is the main purpose of Buddhist practice. No, through painful sensations Buddhists learn to accept them, try to cognize the mutability of life in order to become a supreme being in the next cycle of rebirth.

The philosophy of Buddhism proceeds from the fact that one of the most important goals of human life is the victory over suffering. Real Buddhists do not engage in either moral or physical self-torture just like that, although they know that the world is imperfect. They just keep on following the path to enlightenment. A person who is not familiar with Buddhist philosophy may believe that all Buddhists support the idea of ​​transmigration of souls and the circle of samsara. However, things are a little more complicated due to the inaccurate translation of the sacred books. Most Buddhists understand reincarnation as "rebirth", not "rebirth." Very few Buddhist traditions support the principle of transmigration of souls into various animals. Teaching about chakras, meditation, feng shui, the Book of Changes - what miracles and precious knowledge the East has not given us! If you, like us in "Witch's Happiness", are fascinated by oriental traditions, take a look at our catalog. We have collected original oriental incense for you, books on the progress and spiritual teachings of the East, tools for meditation, oriental symbols that bring good luck. In short, in the "Withe happiness" there is everything that may be needed by a stubborn seeker, planning the immersion in the secrets of East mysticism and spirituality.

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If you want to know what Buddhism is and how Buddhism can lead you to liberation from suffering and true happiness, then read the article to the end and you will have an idea of ​​all the basic concepts of this teaching. In different sources you can find different information about Buddhism. Somewhere Buddhism is more like Western psychology and explains how it can be calm, freeing from affection and desires. But somewhere Buddhism is described as an esoteric teaching explaining all the events that occur in human life as a natural consequence of his karma. I will try in this article to consider Buddhism from different sides and convey what he himself heard from one of the followers of Buddhism - the Vietnamese monk who was born in the monastery and practiced Buddhism all his life.

What is Buddhism? Buddhism is the most popular religion in the world, which is followed by more than 300 million people worldwide. The word "Buddhism" comes from the word "Budha", which means "awaken". This spiritual teaching arose about 2500 years ago, when Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha himself awakened or gained enlightenment.

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What is Buddhism? Is Buddhism religion?

It is said that Buddhism is one of the first world religions. But the Buddhists themselves consider this doctrine not a religion, but rather by the science of a person's consciousness, which studies the causes of suffering and ways of liberation from them.

It is also closer to me that Buddhism is rather philosophy or science, in which there are no ready-made answers, and each person himself is a researcher of his mind, consciousness and in general itself. And in the process of studying itself, a person finds true unshakable happiness and inner freedom. The main tool for studying your mind in Buddhism is meditation. All saw images of a meditating Buddha sitting in a lotus pose with covered eyes. In order to do this practice, it is not necessary to be a follower of Buddhism, becoming a monk and go to the temple. More information about it can be found in the article meditation for beginners at home.

Buddhist path can be described as follows:

Move moral life

Be attentive and aware of your thoughts, feelings and actions

Develop wisdom, understanding and compassion

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How can Buddhism help me?

Buddhism explains the purpose of life, he explains the obvious injustice and inequality around the world. Buddhism provides practical instructions and lifestyle, which leads to true happiness, as well as to material prosperity. How does Buddhism explain the injustice of the world? Why can one person have a thousand times more of the goods than millions of other people? Saying that this injustice is explained in Buddhism, I schitril a little, because in this spiritual teaching, such a thing as injustice does not exist. Buddhism claims that the outside world is something like an illusion, and this illusion is individual for each person. And this illusory reality is created by the human mind itself. That is, what you see in the world around you is a reflection of your mind. What you carry in your mind is what you see in the reflection, isn't that fair? And most importantly, each person has complete freedom to choose what to fill his mind with. You probably thought that this knowledge can be used to change your reality, fulfill all your desires and become happy? You can, but Buddhism teaches not that. .

Human desires are endless, and achieving the desired will not bring real happiness. The fact is that desire is an internal state of a person, and, I must say, this state gives suffering. When a person gets what he wants, this state does not disappear anywhere. It's just that a new object of desire is immediately found, and we continue to suffer.

True happiness, according to Buddhism, is achieved not by changing what you carry in your mind, but by freeing your mind from all predispositions.

If you compare the mind to a film strip, then you can choose which movie to watch: a sad one with a bad ending or an easy one with a happy ending. But true happiness is not watching a movie at all, since a movie is a preprogrammed predisposition. The predispositions of the mind are precisely that filling, which, reflected as if in a mirror, creates the reality of a person. It can also be thought of as a mental program that plays back and creates reality. .

This program in Buddhism is called karma .

, and predispositions are also called mental imprints or sanskara We create imprints in our minds ourselves, reacting to external events. Note that when you are angry, a kind of imprint of this emotion appears in your body, when you are grateful it is already a completely different impression. These bodily imprints of your reactions will be the cause of events that will happen to you in the future.

And you have already realized that everything that is happening around you at the moment is the result of your past prints. And these events are trying to evoke in you the same emotions that caused them.

This law in Buddhism is called

law of cause and effect

Therefore, any reaction to external events (vedana) becomes a cause that will lead to an event in the future, which will again cause the same reaction in you. Here is such a vicious circle. Such a causal cycle is called in Buddhism

the wheel of samsara

And this circle can only be broken

awareness

... If an unpleasant situation happened to you, you automatically react as you used to, thereby creating another such situation in the future. This automatism is the main enemy of awareness. Only when you consciously choose your reactions to everything that happens, you break this circle and get out of it. Therefore, reacting to any situation with gratitude, no matter how it contradicts the logic of the mind, you fill your mind with good good imprints and form a completely new, higher quality reality in your future.

But I will repeat once again that the goal of Buddhism is not only to create favorable imprints in the mind, but in principle to get rid of any programs and dispositions, both good and bad.

Selfishness is the cause of all suffering

Buddhism teaches that all suffering occur from the false concept "I". Yes, the existence of a separate I am just another concept created in the mind. And this is what I, which in Western psychology call the ego and suffers.

Any suffering can only spoke from the attachment of a person to themselves, their ego and self-love.

What the Buddhist Master does is destroying this false ego, eliminating the student from suffering. And it is usually painful and scary. But effectively.

.Soto is a Japanese school founded by a monk named Dogen, who was a student of Reverend Rinzai and took many elements of his thinking from him. Nevertheless, like a mentor, he single-handedly traveled to China to local sources in order to comprehend the knowledge of the true dimension of Buddhism. This is how another type of Japanese Zen appeared, which is still popular and is practiced by a lot of fans.

Probably one of the most famous practices to get rid of egoism is tonglen. To fulfill her fulfillment, it is necessary to introduce a familiar person to him and with each breath to mentally pull into herself, in the area of ​​solar plexus, all his suffering and pain in the form of a black cloud. And with each exhale, give all your happiness and all the best that you have or what you would like to have. Imagine your close girlfriend (if you are a woman) and mentally give her everything you want for yourself: a lot of money, a better man, talented children, etc. And to yourself take all of her suffering. Even more effective to fulfill this practice with your enemies.

Practice tonglen twice a day in the morning and in the evening for 5-10 minutes 3 weeks. And you will see the result.

Practice Tonglen is what will give you positive prints in the mind, which after some time will come to you in the form of what they refused and gave to another person.

What is the reaction in Buddhism Imagine that you were betrayed by a close person. It causes anger in you, insult, anger. But think if you have to experience these feelings? The question is not whether you can feel something else at this moment, for example, thanks. But is theoretically possible such option? There is no such law that you must feel offended or anger in this situation. You yourself make a choice. We react to taking place by negative emotions only because we are in ignorance. We confuse the reason and the consequence, change them in places, believing that the situations cause feelings in us. In fact, feelings cause situations, and situations only seek to call us the same feelings that have become their cause. But we are not obliged to respond to them as they want it. We ourselves can do their conscious spiritual choice.

The world completely reflects our feelings. We do not see this just because the reflection is happening with the delay in time. That is, your today's reality is a reflection of past feelings. What is the point of reacting to the past? Is this not the biggest stupidity of a man in ignorance? Let us leave this question open and smoothly move on to the next fundamental principle of Buddhist philosophy. Open mind

I did not in vain offered to leave the question from the past part open. In one of the most common forms of Buddhism, Zen-Buddhism is not accepted to create the concept of mind. Feel the difference between reasoning and reflection.

The reasoning always has a logical completion - a ready-made answer. If you like to argue and have an answer to any question, you are a clever, who is still growing and growing to awareness. Reflection is a state of an open mind. You reflect on the question, but

Consciously do not come to a logical completed answer

leaving an open question. This is a kind of meditation. Such meditation develops awareness and contributes to the rapid growth of human consciousness.

In Zen Buddhism, there are even special tasks-questions for meditative reflection, which are called koans ... If someday a Buddhist master asks you such a koan problem, do not rush to answer it with a clever air, otherwise you can get a bamboo stick on the head. Koan is a mystery without a solution, it was created to reflect, not to be clever.

If you decide to follow Zen Buddhism, you can close this article and discard any other ready-made answers to your eternal questions. After all, I am also doing concept building here. Is this good or bad? Read also: what is jyotish?

Nonjudgmental perception in Buddhism

Is this good or bad? How did you answer the question in the last chapter?

But a Buddhist would not have answered. Because

non-judgmental perception

Is another cornerstone of Buddhism.

According to Buddhism, such assessments as "good" and "bad", "good" and "evil" and any

duality exist only in the human mind and are an illusion. If you draw a black dot on a black wall, you will not see it. If you draw a white dot on a white wall, you won't see it either. You can see a white dot on a black wall and vice versa just because the opposite exists. Also, there is no good without evil and evil does not exist without good. And any opposites are part of the same whole.

By creating in your mind any assessment, for example "good", you immediately create its opposite in your own mind, otherwise how would you distinguish this your "good"?

How to Practice Buddhism: Mindfulness

Mindfulness is the main practice of Buddhism. One can sit in meditation like Buddha for many years. But for this you need to go to a monastery and renounce secular life. This path is hardly suitable for us, ordinary people.

  • Fortunately, you don't have to sit under a banyan tree to practice mindfulness.
  • Mindfulness can be practiced in daily life. To do this, you need to impartially and carefully observe what is happening at the moment.
  • If you have carefully read the article, then you already understand that the present moment that all the Masters are talking about is not what is happening around you. The present moment is what happens

inside

you. Your reactions. And first of all, your bodily sensations.

Indeed, it is bodily sensations that are reflected in the mirror of the world - they create imprints in your mind.

So, be aware. Pay attention to the present moment, here and now.

And observe carefully and impartially:

Bodily sensations and emotions are reactions to what is happening in the outside world.

Thoughts. Buddhism teaches that thoughts are not you. Thoughts are the same events of the "outside world", but which take place in your mind. That is, thoughts are also predispositions, which also leave their imprints. You cannot choose your thoughts, thoughts appear out of nowhere by themselves. But you can choose how you react to them.

Surrounding area. In addition to the "present" moment, you also need to be very sensitive to all the space around you, to be attentive to people and nature. But keep all your senses under control, not allowing them to influence your inner state.

Buddhism in questions and answers

Why is Buddhism becoming popular?

Buddhism is becoming popular in Western countries for a number of reasons. The first good reason is that Buddhism has solutions to many of the problems of modern materialistic society. It also provides a deep understanding of the human mind and natural treatments for chronic stress and depression. Mindfulness meditation, or mindfulness, is already being used in mainstream Western medicine to treat depression.

The most effective and advanced psychotherapeutic practices are borrowed from Buddhist psychology.

Buddhism spreads in the West primarily among educated and wealthy people, because, having closed their primary material needs, people strive for conscious spiritual development, which ordinary religions with outdated dogmas and blind faith cannot give.

Who was Buddha?

Siddhartha Gautama was born in 563 BC to the royal family in Lumbini in what is now Nepal.

At the age of 29, he realized that wealth and luxury do not guarantee happiness, so he researched various teachings, religions and philosophies of the time to find the key to human happiness. After six years of study and meditation, he finally found the "middle path" and became enlightened. After enlightenment, Buddha spent the rest of his life teaching the principles of Buddhism until his death at the age of 80.

Was Buddha God?

Not. Buddha was not God and did not claim to be. He was an ordinary person who taught the path to enlightenment from his own experience.

Do Buddhists Worship Idols?

Buddhists respect Buddha images, but they do not worship or ask for mercy. Buddha statues with hands on our knees and a sympathetic smile remind us of our desire to cultivate peace and love within ourselves. Worshiping the statue is an expression of gratitude for the teaching.

Why are so many Buddhist countries poor?

One of the Buddhist teachings is that wealth does not guarantee happiness, and wealth is impermanent. In every country, people suffer, whether rich or poor. But those who know themselves find true happiness.

Are there different types of Buddhism?

There are many different types of Buddhism. Accents change from country to country due to custom and culture. What does not change is the essence of the teaching.

Are other religions true?

Buddhism is a belief system that is tolerant of all other beliefs or religions. Buddhism is consistent with the moral teachings of other religions, but Buddhism goes further by providing a long-term purpose in our existence through wisdom and true understanding. Real Buddhism is very tolerant and does not touch labels such as "Christian", "Muslim", "Hindu" or "Buddhist". This is why there have never been wars in the name of Buddhism. This is why Buddhists do not preach or convert, but only explain if an explanation is required.

Is Buddhism a Science?

Science is knowledge that can be turned into a system dependent on observation and verification of facts, and the establishment of general natural laws. The essence of Buddhism fits into this definition, because the Four Noble Truths (see below) can be tested and proven by anyone. In fact, the Buddha himself asked his followers to check the teaching, and not accept his word as true. Buddhism depends more on understanding than on faith.

What did Buddha teach?

The Buddha taught many things, but the basic concepts in Buddhism can be summed up in the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path.

What is the first noble truth?

The first truth is that life is suffering, that is, life includes pain, aging, illness, and ultimately death. We also endure psychological distress such as loneliness, fear, embarrassment, frustration, and anger. This is an irrefutable fact that cannot be denied. This is more realistic than pessimistic, because pessimism expects things to be bad. Instead, Buddhism explains how suffering can be avoided and how we can be truly happy.

What is the second noble truth?

The second truth is that suffering is caused by desire and aversion. We will suffer if we expect other people to live up to our expectations, if we want others to like us, if we don't get what we want, etc. In other words, getting what you want is not guarantees happiness. Instead of constantly struggling to get what you want, try changing your desires. Desire robs us of satisfaction and happiness. A life full of desires, and especially the desire to continue to exist, creates a powerful energy that makes a person be born. Thus, desires lead to physical suffering because they force us to be reborn.

What is the third noble truth?

The third truth is that suffering can be overcome and happiness can be achieved. That true happiness and contentment are possible. If we give up our useless desire for desire and learn to live in the present moment (without being in the past or imagined future), then we can become happy and free. Then we will have more time and energy to help others. This is Nirvana.

What is the Fourth Noble Truth?

The fourth truth is that the Noble Eightfold Path is the path that leads to the end of suffering.

What is the noble Eightfold Path?

The Noble Eightfold Path, or the middle path, consists of eight rules.

- the correct view or comprehension of the four noble truths in their own experience

- the correct intention or unshakable decision to follow the Buddhist path

- correct speech or rejection of lies and rudeness

- correct behavior or refusal to harm living beings

- the correct lifestyle or earning a living in accordance with Buddhist values

- the correct effort or development in oneself of qualities that contribute to awakening

- correct awareness or continuous awareness of body sensations, thoughts, images of the mind

- correct concentration or deep concentration and meditation to achieve liberation

The philosophy of Buddhism proceeds from the fact that one of the most important goals of human life is the victory over suffering. Real Buddhists do not engage in either moral or physical self-torture just like that, although they know that the world is imperfect. They just keep on following the path to enlightenment. A person who is not familiar with Buddhist philosophy may believe that all Buddhists support the idea of ​​transmigration of souls and the circle of samsara. However, things are a little more complicated due to the inaccurate translation of the sacred books. Most Buddhists understand reincarnation as "rebirth", not "rebirth." Very few Buddhist traditions support the principle of transmigration of souls into various animals. Teaching about chakras, meditation, feng shui, the Book of Changes - what miracles and precious knowledge the East has not given us! If you, like us in "Witch's Happiness", are fascinated by oriental traditions, take a look at our catalog. We have collected original oriental incense for you, books on the progress and spiritual teachings of the East, tools for meditation, oriental symbols that bring good luck. In short, in the "Withe happiness" there is everything that may be needed by a stubborn seeker, planning the immersion in the secrets of East mysticism and spirituality.

did not you find what you were looking for? Write on [email protected] or call tel. 8-800-333-04-69. And we are always in touch with Facebook, Telegram, VK and WhatsApp.

Karma is the law that every cause has an effect. Our actions have results. This simple law explains a number of things: inequality in the world, why some are born disabled and some gifted, why some live short lives. Karma emphasizes the importance of each person's responsibility for their past and present actions. How can we test the karmic effect of our actions? The response is summarized by considering (1) the intent behind the action, (2) the effect of the action on oneself, and (3) the effect on others.

What is wisdom?

Buddhism teaches that wisdom should be developed with compassion. On the one hand, you can be a kind-hearted fool, and on the other, you can gain knowledge without any emotion. Buddhism uses the middle path to develop both. The highest wisdom is to see that in reality all phenomena are incomplete, impermanent, and do not constitute a fixed entity. True wisdom is not just believing in what we are told, but experiencing and understanding truth and reality. Wisdom requires an open, objective, unblemished mind. The Buddhist path requires courage, patience, flexibility and intelligence.

What is compassion? Compassion includes the qualities of communication, the willingness to give comfort, empathy, and concern. In Buddhism, we can understand others when we can truly understand ourselves, through wisdom.

How can I become a Buddhist?

Buddhist teachings can be understood and tested by anyone. Buddhism teaches that the solutions to our problems are within us, not outside. The Buddha asked all his followers not to take his word as true, but rather to experience the teaching for themselves. Thus, everyone decides for himself and takes responsibility for his actions and understanding. This makes Buddhism not a fixed package of beliefs that must be accepted in its entirety, but rather a study that each person studies and uses in his own way. 15 october 2018 Anthropology, History Buddhism in 9 Questions

How is Buddhism different from Hinduism? How to count buddhas? Are there really many Buddhists in the world, but few in India? We answer these and other questions about one of the world's largest religions  Author Lyudmila Zhukova

1. Who Invented Buddhism?

Birth of Prince Siddhartha Gautama. Poster of Master Maligavage Sarlis. Sri Lanka , mid XX century Amazon.com, Inc. Unlike the other two major world religions (Christianity and Islam), Buddhism is a non-theistic religion, that is, it denies the existence of a creator God and an eternal soul. Founder of Buddhism In Sanskrit, the word "buddha" means "awakened." Siddhartha Gautama of the Sakya clan, who belonged to the varna of the Kshatriyas, that is, to the class of warriors, was born in northern India, presumably in the middle of the 6th century BC. e. His biography very early was overgrown with various legends, and the historical layer firmly merged with the mythological, starting with the circumstances of his birth, which were very unusual. The prince's future mother dreamed that a white elephant entered her body, and this was interpreted as a harbinger of the coming into the world of a great man, the future ruler of the universe.

Childhood and adolescence of Siddhartha were cloudless: he knew no disease, no grief, no need. But one day, leaving the palace, he ran into a sick man, an old man and a funeral procession. This shocked him so much that he left home and became an ascetic.

At the age of 35, during a long meditation, Siddhartha attains enlightenment, that is, becomes a buddha, and begins to preach his teaching - dharma. The essence of this teaching was four noble truths. At first

, the world is imperfect and full of suffering. Secondly, the source of suffering is desires and thirst for life, which make the wheel of samsara spin - the cycle of life, death, new births.  Thirdly , one can break out of the cycle of samsara, reaching enlightenment (bodhi) and ultimately nirvana, that is, a state of blissful nothingness. Th-th

Indeed, there is an eight-step path to liberation that includes ethical practice, meditation, and saving wisdom. This path is called the eightfold and middle path, since it is equidistant from both the path of strict asceticism and from a life full of pleasure (which ultimately turns into suffering).

2. How is Buddhism different from Hinduism?  Buddha (center) as the avatar of Vishnu. Bas-relief of the Chennakesawa Temple. Somanathapura, India, mid-13th century © Jean-Pierre Dalbéra / CC BY 2.0 Buddhism is a world religion; therefore, representatives of any nationality can become Buddhists. This is one of the radical differences between Buddhism and Hinduism.

Hinduism

- the religion of India, which is professed by more than 80% of the country's population. Unlike Buddhism, Hinduism is a national religion, belonging to which is determined by birth. Hinduism is a collection of different traditions, which, as is commonly believed, are united by the recognition of the authority of the Vedas - the main sacred text of Hinduism. - a national religion that is absolutely closed for penetration from outside. The social structure of Indian society was formed by four estates, varnas, - brahmanas (priests and scientists), kshatriyas (warriors), vaisyas (farmers and merchants) and sudras (artisans and hired workers). Belonging to Varna was determined exclusively by birth - just like belonging to Hinduism in general.

Buddhism, which was at first one of the many oppositional currents to Hinduism, became a radical reformist teaching, both intellectually, spiritually and socially. Buddhists put the ethical merit of man above origin, rejecting the varna system and the authority of the brahmanas. Over time, this small movement developed its own social structure, a corpus of sacred texts and cult practice. Having become a world religion, it spread far beyond the Indian subcontinent.

In India, however, Buddhism gradually declined. Less than 1% of Indians consider themselves Buddhists today. In terms of number, Buddhism occupies only the fifth place among religions widespread in India, significantly inferior to Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Sikhism

Sikhism

- one of the national religions of India, founded in the 16th century in Punjab. ... At the same time, the founder of Buddhism, Buddha Shakyamuni, is revered in Hinduism as one of the incarnations (one of the avatars) of the god Vishnu. But in the world ranking of religions, Buddhism is in fourth place: it is professed by 7% of the world's population.

3. What does it mean to be a Buddhist?  Buddha surrounded by followers. Painting in a Buddhist temple in Thailand Wikimedia Commons

For several centuries, the teachings of the Buddha were transmitted orally, and in the 1st century BC. e. was written on palm leaves, which were kept in three baskets. Hence the name of the Buddhist canon - Tripitaka ("Three baskets"). In Buddhism, there are several directions and many schools, but all Buddhists are united by the belief in the "three jewels" - Buddha, dharma (the teachings of Buddha) and sangha (monastic community). The ceremony of joining the Buddhist community involves reciting a short ritual formula with the mention of the "three jewels": "I am going under the protection of the Buddha, I am going under the protection of the dharma, I am going under the protection of the sangha."

In addition, all Buddhists must follow the five rules established by the Buddha: do not harm sentient beings, do not steal, do not commit adultery, do not lie, do not use alcohol and drugs.

4. Are there any ramifications in Buddhism (as in Christianity)?

Mandala Vasudhara. Nepal, 1777 The Metropolitan Museum of Art There are three directions in Buddhism: Theravada - "the teachings of the elders", Mahayana - "the great chariot" The word "chariot" implies that teaching is a kind of vehicle that takes people to enlightenment.

and the vajrayana, the "diamond chariot." The Theravada, widespread mainly in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, is considered the most ancient direction, going directly back to Buddha Shakyamuni and the circle of his disciples.  From the point of view of the followers of the Mahayana, Theravada is an overly elitist teaching, which they contemptuously call the Hinayana, that is, the "small vehicle" - after all, it assumes that it is possible to attain nirvana only by taking the path of monasticism. Mahayanists, on the other hand, claim that lay people can attain enlightenment too. A special role for them is played by the doctrine of bodhisattvas - enlightened people who voluntarily remained in samsara in order to help other people get out of the cycle of birth and death. Thus, in the Tibetan tradition, the spiritual leader of the Tibetans, the XIV Dalai Lama, is considered the embodiment of the bodhisattva of mercy Avalokiteshvara. Mahayana is common in China, Tibet, Nepal, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and South Siberia. Finally, the Vajrayana arose within the Mahayana at the end of the 1st millennium AD. e., reaching the highest flowering in Tibet. Followers of this movement argued that enlightenment can be achieved within one life, if you adhere to the Buddhist virtues and resort to special meditation practices. Currently, it is distributed mainly in Mongolia, Tibet, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia.

5. Is there one Buddha, or are there many?

Future Buddha Maitreya. Image of a tank (drawing on fabric), commissioned by the VIII Dalai Lama in memory of his deceased mentor. Tibet, 1793-1794

the years

Norton Simon Art Foundation

Buddhism postulates the existence of countless "awakened" Buddhas, and Shakyamuni is the most famous of them. However, in Buddhist texts one can find the names of his predecessors - there are from 7 to 28. In addition, another Buddha, Maitreya, is expected in the future.

Translated from Sanskrit - "loving, merciful."

... Now, as Buddhists believe, the bodhisattva Maitreya resides in the heavens of Tushita (that is, in the "Garden of Joy"), and later appears on earth, attains enlightenment, becoming a Buddha, and begins to preach "pure dharma." 6. Is Buddha a god or not?

Hanabusa Itcho. Death of Buddha. 1713 year Museum of Fine Arts, Boston As mentioned above, Buddhism is a non-theistic religion. However, in Buddhist mythology, the "human" aspects of the life of Buddha Shakyamuni coexist with descriptions of his supernatural abilities, as well as phenomena of a cosmic scale that accompanied different stages of his life path. He is spoken of as a pre-existing being, capable of creating special worlds - "Buddha fields".

The ashes of the Buddha are perceived as evidence of his mystical presence in our world and are surrounded by special reverence. According to legend, it was divided into eight parts and was kept in the first Buddhist cult buildings - stupas (from Sanskrit it translates as "crown" or "earthen hill"). In addition, the Mahayana taught about the eternal "dharmic body" of the Buddha, which he possessed along with an ordinary, physical body. This body is identified with both dharma and the universe as a whole. Obviously, Buddha is revered not only as a "great man" but also as a deity, especially in the Mahayana and Vajrayana.

In addition, Hindu deities have not been expelled from the Buddhist pantheon at all - just the figure of Buddha pushed them into the background. According to Buddhist teachings, the gods, like all other living beings, are subject to the cycle of samsara and, in order to escape from it, they need to be reborn in the human world - after all, Buddhas are born only in it. By the way, before being born for the last time, Buddha Shakyamuni, according to legends, was reborn more than five hundred times and was a king, and a frog, and a saint, and a monkey. 7. Do Buddhists Celebrate New Year?

Toyohara Chikanobu. A mother and daughter go to a Buddhist temple with other pilgrims to celebrate the New Year. No later than 1912 Claremont Colleges Digital Library In folk Buddhism, there are many holidays - very popular, although they have a very distant relationship to religion. One of them is New Year, which is celebrated in different regions.

differently ... In general, the Buddhist holiday cycle is based on the lunar calendar (everywhere except Japan). One of the main Buddhist holidays proper can be called Vesak, with which from one to three key events in the life of Buddha Shakyamuni (birth, enlightenment, nirvana) are associated in different countries. Other holidays are Sangha Day, that is, the memory of the Buddha's meeting with his disciples, and Dharma Day, that is, the memory of the first sermon of the Buddha. In addition, the Day of All the Dead is celebrated in Buddhist countries: the pre-Buddhist cult of ancestors is very stable and plays a huge role. 8. Do Buddhists have temples?

Ernst Hein. Buddhist temple in Kyoto. Second half of the 19th century

Pixels The most famous Buddhist religious building is the stupa. Initially, stupas were built as reliquaries, in which the remains of Buddha Shakyamuni were kept and revered, later - in memory of

important

events. There are several types of stupas, and their architectural appearance largely depends on regional traditions: they can be hemispherical, square stepped, or have the shape of pagodas. To earn good karma, Buddhists practice ritual bypassing the stupa.

 

There are also temples that are architecturally even more diverse. It is believed that in

them

 

and three treasures of Buddhism are concentrated - the Buddha (his statues and other images), the dharma embodied in the texts of the Buddhist canon, and the sangha, represented by monks living at a temple or monastery.

9. Are Buddhists Vegetarians or Not?

 

Sujata serves rice and milk to Buddha. Tank painting (drawing on fabric). Nepal

© Diomedia

It would seem that one of the most important Buddhist principles - ahimsa - involves the refusal to eat meat. However, in reality, in different regions, food restrictions are mainly due to local customs. Among Buddhists, there are both supporters and opponents of vegetarianism, and both of them cite the legendary sayings of the Buddha in support of their position. So, there is a Buddhist parable about a deer and a tiger, in which a deer goes to hell because, boasting of his vegetarianism, he, eating grass, unwittingly destroyed small insects, and the predator tiger, on the contrary, cleared his karma, because he suffered all his life and repented.

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micro-headings Daily short stories that we have produced for the past three years Archive

Origin of Buddhism One of the most ancient world religions is Buddhism. Among the features of Buddhism, it should be noted that a person who has adopted Buddhism can simultaneously profess other religions, for example, Hinduism, Taoism, Shintoism. This feature originates from the teachings of the Vedas, an important feature of which was a liberal attitude towards other teachings. Despite the fact that Buddhism arose as an unorthodox school, that is, it did not recognize the authority of the Vedas, this teaching adopted many principles from the Vedas. Buddhists are chronologically counting the existence of their religion from the time of Buddha's departure from life in this world. According to the tradition of the oldest Buddhist Theravada school, Buddha lived from 624 to 544 BC. The birthplace of Buddhism is India. Buddhism arose during the crisis of Brahmanism and belongs to unorthodox schools. Unlike Brahmanism, in Buddhism, a person is perceived not through the prism of class belonging, but through the prism of his individual qualities. Buddhism does not agree to consider the distinction between people according to varnas and castes to be legal, valid, and could not, of course, recognize them by their very essence. One of the episodes of Buddhist legends eloquently speaks of this - a conversation between the beloved disciple of Buddha Ananda and Prakriti, a girl from a lower caste. According to legend, Ananda asks the girl for water; surprised, she points out to him that she belongs to a lower caste, that is, that it is impossible for him to take water from her, and Ananda answers her that he did not ask her, his sister, about the caste, but only asked for water. , It is also important that in Buddhism, women could attain enlightenment as well as men. The significance of a human being is determined by the development of his mind. In fact, in Buddhism, the idea of ​​a single person is posed, which in potential expresses ideas about the self-worth and self-sufficiency of a person. Talking about the very founder of the religion Buddha This feature originates from the teachings of the Vedas, an important feature of which was a liberal attitude towards other teachings. Despite the fact that Buddhism arose as an unorthodox school, that is, it did not recognize the authority of the Vedas, this teaching adopted many principles from the Vedas. , it is necessary to emphasize that Buddha is not a name that expresses the existence of a specific person, but is a state of a person in which he gains absolute enlightenment and liberation. Literally from Pali and Sanskrit word Buddha translates as

enlightened

awakened ... A similar ancient Indian word budha

What attracts you to Buddhism

wise ... The name of the founder of Buddhism is Gautama. However, for the convenience of perceiving the material of the teaching, we will use the word и Buddha to mean exactly Gautama. He was the son of King Shuddhodana and his wife Maya and heir to the power of his father. The prince lived for a long time in palace luxury, but one day he went outside the palace and learned that there is a lot of grief in the world. He paid particular attention to illness, old age and death. Then he decided to save people from suffering and began to look for ways to universal happiness. For some time he thought that asceticism, self-restraint in food would allow one to know the truth, but when the Buddha physically felt bad, he decided that depletion of the body leads to depletion of the mind. At the age of 35, during meditation under a tree-like ficus, Buddha enlightened, after which he began to preach and became famous for his piety and wisdom Basic principles of Buddhism и Subsequently, Buddhism spread throughout the East. In Japan, Buddhism is called bucche

... In India, this religion is not particularly widespread. First, the worldview proposed in Buddhism contradicted the attitude associated with the traditional system of varnas. Secondly, the official authorities of the Indian state formations did not contribute to the development of Buddhism in India. However, Buddhism attracted many people in China, Sri Lanka, Korea, Japan, and the countries of Southeast Asia. In these regions, Buddhism greatly influenced the culture of the peoples. As a matter of fact, the unhurried rhythm of life is a kind of consequence of the conviction of people that everything in the world repeats itself, returns to square one, and therefore there is no point in rushing things. The concept of mercy in these cultures is also peculiar. If a being is supposed to suffer according to his dharma, then there is no point in relieving his suffering. However, aggressive behavior is rare in Buddhists. The spread of Buddhism was facilitated not only by its tolerant attitude towards other religions, but also by the understanding that each person is individual and he has the opportunity to achieve enlightenment. Consequently, a preacher, when talking with a person about the teachings of the Buddha, must respect the interlocutor and take into account his individual characteristics. As for the moral and emotional sphere, in Buddhism, the dominant concepts are и tolerance relativity , from the standpoint of which moral precepts are not always obligatory and can be violated under certain conditions. There are no developed concepts in Buddhism .

responsibility

What attracts you to Buddhism

guilt

as something absolute, and a clear reflection of this is the absence in Buddhism of a clear line between the ideals of religious and secular morality. These factors attracted many people to Buddhism. There are approximately 250 million followers of Buddhism. Buddhism, having arisen in the midst of Hinduism, took a lot from the doctrine of this religion. So Buddhism adopted the idea of ​​the law karma

samsara ... The law of samsara, or rebirth, in Buddhism is called bhavachakra

... The law of samsara, or rebirth, in Buddhism is called
... The law of samsara, or rebirth, in Buddhism is called

On the walls of Buddhist temples, you can still see the image of the god Yama, who holds the "wheel of life" in his hands. In some interpretations of the Buddha's teachings, the god Yama is the ruler of the underworld. Despite his outwardly terrible appearance, Yama should not be called an evil deity. In general, for Buddhism, the concepts of an evil or good deity are not significant, since a person's life is determined by his own actions, and the gods only direct a person to the path that he himself predetermined by his thoughts, words and actions. Moreover, the gods and spirits are themselves subject to the law of karma. Sometimes in the drawings in the "wheel of life" you can see snakes biting each other's tails. Such a combination of drawn figures means that some sins give rise to others, causing a person to be reborn. The head of the god Yama is decorated with five skulls. They symbolize the passions of a person on which he depends. :

It is because of his attachment to passions that the individual becomes subject to the law of bhavachakra, and his life, like a wheel, ends up in the hands of the god Yama, who does not release the human soul from the cycle of rebirth, sending it to the next circle of life, one way or another filled with pain and suffering ... In the center of the "circle of life" are depicted a rooster, a snake and a pig, symbolizing lust, anger and ignorance. It is these passions that are most destructive for a person. In the middle circle of the bhavachakra six worlds of existence are depicted: the world of gods; the world of asuras (demigods fighting among themselves); the world of people; animal world; world preth (hungry ghosts); the world of hell. Each world has its own Buddha preaching the path to salvation.

In such a circle, it is impossible to imagine the likelihood of maintaining eternal constancy. Buddhism pays attention to the fact that everything in the world is conditioned and changeable. The mind, being a continuous stream of consciousness, retains the impressions of experienced passions and desires. The form of future rebirth and, accordingly, the essence of the change depends on the nature of the latter. Even the soul of a person after death is partially destroyed and reborn in accordance with the thoughts and actions of the individual himself. In this case, it is important to take into account the fact that Buddhism views life as an expression of various

dharm

- flows of non-material particles. Combinations of dharmas define the essence of matter. After the death of the organism, the dharmas are recombined.

What attracts you to Buddhism
To get out of the cycle of rebirth, Buddha offered his teaching, in which the paramount place is occupied by

"Four noble truths"

1. The entire human existence is filled with suffering. Accordingly, the central ethical category of Buddhism is compassion

to all living things. The particular development of the idea of ​​compassion distinguishes the ethics of Buddhism from other religious and philosophical teachings (for example, from Christianity, where the feeling of love is in the first place, and the first and second New Testament commandments begin with the word "love ..."; or from Islam, where every person, before of all, must be submissive to the will of Allah, on which the entire universe depends). So, if in Buddhism the individual achieves enlightenment through his powers, then in Islam a person deserves salvation, which, however, is carried out not by the faithful himself, but exclusively by Allah.

2. Suffering has its cause associated with people's attachments to life in this world. 3. Suffering is generated by the person himself, which means that he can be overcome and eliminated. To end suffering, it is necessary to get rid of desires and passions. (4. You can get rid of desires and passions if you follow the "eightfold noble path." On this path, a person must be guided by: correct views; correct intentions; correct speech; the right actions; the right way of life; by right efforts; correct awareness; correct concentration. Thus, this path includes a culture of behavior, a culture of wisdom, a culture of meditation. The culture of meditation is a system of exercises leading to the achievement of inner peace and enlightenment. In the culture of behavior, the general principles of morality are proclaimed. The culture of wisdom lies in the knowledge of the four noble truths. According to the Buddha's teachings, any person, observing these truths, is able to become a Buddha, that is, attain enlightenment. However, not all people who have become Buddhas leave samsara. Some stay to preach the path to enlightenment and salvation. Such people are called bodhisattvas. (In order to understand the path to salvation, it is necessary to fulfill the following conditions: 1. Rely on meaning, not reason. 2. Rely on the Primordial Wisdom, not the ordinary mind. 3. Rely on absolute truth, not relative truth. 4. Rely on teaching, not personality. Thus, despite the significant role of mentors in comprehending the teachings, Buddhism focuses on the individual, subjective, reflective activity of a person.

The main directions of Buddhism As for the question of the possibilities and ways of salvation, we note that two directions have developed in Buddhism: hinayana narrow path ) and mahayana ; wide path ). Initially, the Hinayana school was called 3. Suffering is generated by the person himself, which means that he can be overcome and eliminated. To end suffering, it is necessary to get rid of desires and passions. theravada

What attracts you to Buddhism

... This concept is formed from two words of the Pali language: thera senior and most respected in the community thera wada teaching ... The name .was given later by the Mahayana community members. This Buddhist community stood out in the 4th century. BC e. She preached the idea of ​​unchanged Buddhism - Buddhism in the form that Buddha Gautama himself brought to their contemporaries. The Hinayana also drew attention to the need to observe the differences between the appearance and way of life of monks and laymen. Despite the rigor of the Hinayana teachings, it is widespread in a number of regions, for example in Sri Lanka, where Buddhism in the 3rd century. BC e. became the state religion.

Characterizing the Mahayana, it should be noted that its earliest texts date back to the 1st century. n. e., although the Mahayana took shape much earlier. The main difference between Mahayana and Hinayana was the proclamation of the ideal

bodhisattvas awakened being ... The very concept translated from Sanskrit as being seeking enlightenment ... In Hinayana, Buddha was called bodhisattva in past lives. In the Mahayana, a bodhisattva is a person who has attained enlightenment, but has not gone into nirvana and remains in samsara for the sake of preaching the teachings of the Buddha. Thus, the Mahayana proclaimed the idea of ​​universal salvation, and a person entering the Mahayana community took the bodhisattva oath, in which he promised to remain in samsara until all sentient beings are saved. This idea was supported by the opinion that each person, at least in one of his many lives, was a close relative of another person. , Mahayana Buddhism is very widespread in China and Tibet, where it is practiced and studied in detail in monasteries. Also known is the Vajrayana (Tantra), which was formed in the III century. n. e. Translated as "vajra chariot". Vajra is an instrument in the hands of the god Indra, with which he sent lightning. Later word vajra

became associated with reliability, indivisibility, incorruptibility. This teaching assumes the possibility of enlightenment in one or more lifetimes. A special role in enlightenment (or awakening of the Buddha in a person) is played by mantras (from Sanskrit means

liberation

traya mind manasa

What attracts you to Buddhism

). A mantra is a special symphony of sounds that awakens the mind. The second name for Vajrayana is Tantra , which incorporates several abbreviated Sanskrit words: mind, intention, thought and liberation. Tantra also means continuity, in this case implying the continuity of the stream of consciousness. Sino-Tibetan Buddhism

Several schools of Buddhism were formed in Tibet and China, among which the following schools stand out: Tiantai, Huayan and Chan. It should be noted that in China itself there were no teachings that would have a developed doctrine of the soul and its salvation. The doctrine of karma in China was viewed as a doctrine of the eternal spiritual beginning. In principle, the Confucians argued that spirituality is a function of the body, as sharpness is the function of a knife. Taoism, on the other hand, had a limited distribution and demanded from a person such a way of life, which was sometimes impossible for objective reasons. Therefore, there was no strong competition for Buddhism in China, which was one of the compelling reasons for the rapid spread of Buddhism in this region. In 622, Buddhism was adopted in Tibet, where at that time the religion was functioning.
Several schools of Buddhism were formed in Tibet and China, among which the following schools stand out: Tiantai, Huayan and Chan. It should be noted that in China itself there were no teachings that would have a developed doctrine of the soul and its salvation. The doctrine of karma in China was viewed as a doctrine of the eternal spiritual beginning. In principle, the Confucians argued that spirituality is a function of the body, as sharpness is the function of a knife. Taoism, on the other hand, had a limited distribution and demanded from a person such a way of life, which was sometimes impossible for objective reasons. Therefore, there was no strong competition for Buddhism in China, which was one of the compelling reasons for the rapid spread of Buddhism in this region. In 622, Buddhism was adopted in Tibet, where at that time the religion was functioning.

bon

, which includes a number of shamanic practices, but it was later also supplanted by Buddhism. Theory played a special role in the establishment of Buddhism in China Tathagatagarbhi (garbhi)

... The word itself Tathagatagarbha is often understood as synonymous with Buddha for two reasons. First, it denotes a fetus. Secondly, the receptacle, or womb, in which the embryo, the embryo is located. Thus, the Tathagatagarbha has the following translations: "Buddha's Embryo", "Buddha's Womb", "Buddha's Seat". The first translation emphasizes that every person can become a Buddha, for the Buddha exists in him from the very beginning. As a matter of fact, every person is a potential Buddha, for he can become one. In the second and third translations, attention is drawn to the fact that all living beings are already Buddhas. It is only important to realize this fact and understand yourself as a Buddha. Moreover, the existence of the Buddha in a person was associated with his intelligence, and the Mind was identified with the essence of the Buddha. It is the Mind that is the only absolute reality. The attributes of Mind are Constancy (nitya), Bliss (sukha), Self (atman) and Purity (subha). These attributes of Mind are opposite to the qualities of samsara: impermanence (anitya), suffering (duhkha), insubstantialness (anatma) and impurity (ashubha). In this case, the mind acts not only as a way of logical cognition of the objective world, but also as a way of comprehending its content, in which Buddha is revealed, the way of comprehending and feeling the Buddha in oneself. The strengthening of this attitude was facilitated by the fact that in the Chinese philosophical tradition, the thinking organ was the heart (xin). It was understood as "smart heart".

chinese buddhism In general, three groups of schools can be distinguished in Chinese Buddhism: one. Schools of treatises (harrier) ... They studied, interpreted and commented on the texts of Indian Buddhism. Of these schools, the most famous Fa xiang zong, founded in the middle of the 7th century. AD This school was based on small translation schools founded by Xuanzan. This learned monk made a long journey across India and brought from there religious and philosophical texts in Sanskrit. Another school of treatises is also widely known - San lun zong. These schools represented Indian Buddhism in China, but in this region they quickly ended their existence. Now there are few representatives of harrier schools in Japan. In Japan, the Fa xiang zong school is pronounced as Hosso-shi. Schools of treatises (harrier) 2.

Sutra Schools (Jing)

What attracts you to Buddhism

... They are based on doctrinal texts that are not so much philosophical as religious in nature. At the same time, philosophical issues were also raised in these schools. Such schools include Tiantai Zong. Despite the fact that in the middle of the IX century. the influence of these schools weakened significantly, they survived in China, albeit in insignificant numbers. 3. Dhyana (Chan) schools

... These are schools of contemplation, mainly studying Buddhist psychology, meditation, yoga. The school of mantras (zhen yan zong, or mi jiao - secret teaching) and the chan zong school stand out here. The schools of this group have retained a significant influence in the 21st century. Let us consider the most influential schools. School

  1. Tiantai
  2. founded by the monk Chzhi-i (538-597). Name
  3. comes from the name of the Tiantai-ishan mountain in eastern China, where Chzhi-i lived for a long time. The main canonical text in the school is considered to be the Lotus Sutra. This sutra provides and substantiates a clear doctrine for the classification of the teachings of Buddhism. This doctrine is called "Five periods, eight teachings" (Wu shi ba jiao). According to the doctrine of the five periods, Gautama Buddha, after gaining awakening, was in a special form of concentration. In this state, Buddha saw the world as the absolute unity of the infinite Mind. This vision is reflected in the Avatamsaka Sutra and the Lotus Sutra.

The doctrine of the One Mind is closely related to cosmological concepts. It is believed that each living creature is viewed in two ways, namely: as a special level of development of consciousness and as a corresponding world. Consequently, a living being dwells in the world that corresponds to his level of development of consciousness, and to the world that is able to be reflected in his consciousness. According to the Tiantai teachings, there are ten types of worlds. These are the six worlds of samsaric beings and the four worlds of "noble personalities." Each of these worlds exists in any other world - we can say that they penetrate each other.

Thus, the world of hells is present in the world of Buddhas, but there are also worlds of hells in the world of Buddhas.
Thus, the world of hells is present in the world of Buddhas, but there are also worlds of hells in the world of Buddhas.

Each of the worlds is considered in three aspects: 1) the world of beings (the world is understood in the aspect of the creatures inhabiting it); 2) the world of the five skandhas (the world is considered in the psychological aspect, as the level of development of the consciousness of beings); 3) the world-country (the world is considered as a repository of living beings). There are 3,000 worlds in the Tiantai teachings, and three truths are proclaimed in the Tiantai school: Since all phenomena are conditioned, they are devoid of self-existence and in fact are non-essential. A phenomenon is only a manifestation of the causes and conditions that gave rise to it. All phenomena are illusory and like fantasies. All phenomena are endowed with an identical dharma nature, which means that they are not born and do not perish, since they are eternal manifestations of the eternal Buddha. In the third truth, the world is identified with the awakened Mind of Buddha and, as the researcher of Tibetan philosophy K.Yu. Corned beef, in fact, is a "justification of being." The Tiantai school gained wide popularity in Japan, where this doctrine was preached by the monk Saitho (767-822). Over time, the school of the monk Nichuren (1222-1282) emerged from the Tiantai school in Japan. The Nichuren school was distinguished by the fact that it emphasized the "Lotus Sutra" and a special prayer associated with this sutra. Moreover, this prayer had to be repeated many times, which contributed to the correct organization of the spiritual practice. Now the Tiantai school has little influence in Vietnam and Korea. Huayan School At one time, the school played a significant role in the development of Buddhism

Huayan ... Word и huayan means

flower garland ... The founder of this school is the monk Fa-tsang (Xiangshou) (643-712). Formally, he is considered the third patriarch of Huayan. His ancestors arrived in China from Sogdiana (a region in Central Asia), but Fa-tsang himself was born in China. The basic principle of the Huayan school is the following: huayan all in one, one in all huayan (each element contains the whole world, and this element contains every other element). In the Huayan school, to illustrate this idea, they often turn to the idea of ​​the precious net of the god Indra, the decorations of which are reflected in each other, forming a single, interconnected, interpenetrating garland. The most important principles in this school are the principles shi whether There are 3,000 worlds in the Tiantai teachings, and three truths are proclaimed in the Tiantai school: ... Word ... On the basis of these concepts, the school developed the idea of ​​the mutual unimpededness of principle and phenomenon. Itself word originally meant the delimitation of fields, later - the processing of precious stones. Anyway the word expressed the idea ... Word principle у, or , organizational structure norms had two main meanings: 1) иbusiness huayan and 2) as a verb ... Word serve huayan и ... Word ... In philosophical texts

used as a synonym for the word

thing
thing

thing

being , which was associated with the idea of ​​things as deeds, that is, formations in the process of change ( ). Thus, the concept expresses the idea of ​​an eternal and unchanging principle, and the principle - its temporary, changeable manifestation. Thereby, express the idea of ​​the principle of organization of a changing structure, or order. Phenomena are endowed with the nature of the principle and carry all its attributes, including infinity. Therefore, every phenomenon, every dharma is infinite and all-encompassing. The empirical world itself is a system of mutually containing elements. The world in its true reality is a single integral system of the "principle" manifested in things, phenomena, each of which contains all the others. Note that the Huayan monks consider their teaching the most complete and complete.

In the IX century. Huayan loses its influence and is supplanted by the Ch'an school. Now in Japan and China there is one Huayan monastery. Also, this school has a limited distribution in Korea. In addition, we note that the teachings of Huayan are studied in the monasteries of the Ch'an school.

Chan School

The Ch'an school is the most Sinicized school of Buddhism. The word itself

chan

there is a transcription of the Sanskrit word

dhyana

contemplation, meditation , which clearly indicates the priorities of Ch'an Buddhism. According to tradition, Ch'an originated during the Buddha's Flower Sermon, “from heart to heart” during the transmission of enlightenment from the Buddha to his disciple Mahakashyapa. He was the only one who understood the teacher who raised the flower and smiled at the students.

The goal of Ch'an Buddhism is to attain Buddhahood in this life. This goal can only be achieved through meditation. The main idea of ​​Ch'an is the need to teach a person meditation, regardless of his condition. Even a working monk should be able to meditate. Moreover, monks must definitely work. Many monasteries are dominated by the principle of "a day without work - a day without food" (Patriarch Baizhang). Unlike monks from other schools, Ch'an monks are able to meditate while cultivating the land, practicing martial arts, and also while teaching literature.

At the turn of the VII-VIII centuries. the Ch'an school experienced a split into northern and southern schools. The reasons for the split were disputes over the following issues:

1) how much does a person need a monastic lifestyle in order to attain enlightenment?

2) is the awakening immediate or gradual? The northern school believed that in order to awaken consciousness, one must become a monk. The Southern School, headed by Huineng, believed that the layman, during his daily activities, can adjust his psyche in such a way as to meditate correctly and comprehend the truth.

In this case, it is important to take into account the fact that in the Chan school the world of nirvana is not opposed to samsara, moreover, these worlds are equal, for Buddha is present in both worlds. Moreover, the Ch'an monks paid attention to the Buddha's assertion that all worlds are in fact perfect, but the consciousness of a person who perceives the world may turn out to be clouded. Therefore, a person first of all needs to clear his consciousness in order to feel his connection with the entire universe. Regarding enlightenment, representatives of both directions believed that it was possible in one life. But Huineng insisted on the instant nature of enlightenment, comparing it to "a sudden flash of lightning in the night." It is noteworthy that in modern monasteries, to stimulate the ability to sudden enlightenment, they use stick techniques: they beat the meditating monk with a stick so that he can quickly rebuild his consciousness and stimulate the development of the ability for sudden enlightenment. Ultimately, Huineng believed that the division of enlightenment into two types - sudden and gradual - is empty and unnecessary, because it is foolish to go to the goal gradually, when it can be obtained suddenly. Huineng formulated three principles of meditation:

1. Absence of any thoughts, for they can darken the heart.
1. Absence of any thoughts, for they can darken the heart.

2. Absence of manifestations, that is, a monk during meditation should not think about the reality of the world. Moreover, in essence such a question is empty, for it is important for a person to reveal the world of Buddha in himself, regardless of the external environment. 3. Absence of a monastery. A monk should not have a permanent residence, both outside and inside himself.

For your reference, note that Huineng, the VI patriarch of Ch'an Buddhism, is a very well-known personality among Buddhists. As a child, when he was selling brushwood, he heard a Chan Buddhist monk preach and immediately went to a Buddhist monastery. Huineng never knew how to read or write, but was considered the best teacher.

Note that Ch'an monasteries are distinguished by strict discipline. So, the canon of the rules of Ch'an monasteries are the rules of Shaolin. In the Shaolin monastery, the following is the daily routine of the monks-fighters: 5.00 - rise; 5.15 - morning workout; 6.40 - morning lectures; 7.45 - breakfast; 9.00 housework; 11.30 - lunch; 12.40 - daytime rest; 14.00 - self-preparation; 17.10 - lectures and sermons; 18.50 - dinner; 21 - Wushu training; 23.10 - going to bed. However, in the past decade, Shaolin monks have feared that commercial relations have begun to invade the monastery's life. In general, the life of a Ch'an monk is subject to five rules: a life of humility, work, in serving people, in prayer and in meditation. Ch'an spread not only in China, but also in Korea, where the monk Chinul played a significant role in the preaching of Ch'an (1158 -1210). However, due to the adoption in Korea of ​​Confucianism as the state religion, Ch'an Buddhism was subjected to restrictions. In the XII century. Chan began to penetrate into Japan, where it received the name zen

What attracts you to Buddhism

... Currently, Ch'an Buddhism is widely spread in China, Vietnam, Korea. In general, this school dominates in the Far East.

Ch'an monks Several sayings of the Ch'an monks: shi - When a kind person preaches a false doctrine, it becomes true. When a bad man preaches true doctrine, it becomes false. - The deer hunter does not see the mountain. The hunter for gold does not see people. - Not to take what is given by Heaven means to punish yourself. - When a speck of dust rises, it contains the whole earth. When a flower blooms, a whole world opens up. - To seek wisdom outside of oneself is the height of folly. Buddhism in Japan. Zen Buddhism

Religions such as Buddhism and Shinto dominate in Japan. Traditionally, the Japanese religion is Shinto. This religion has many features of animism, the deification of natural phenomena is noticeable in it, the cult of ancestors and the spirits of the dead is developed. It is believed that each thing has its own spiritual essence - It is noteworthy that in modern monasteries, to stimulate the ability to sudden enlightenment, they use stick techniques: they beat the meditating monk with a stick so that he can quickly rebuild his consciousness and stimulate the development of the ability for sudden enlightenment. Ultimately, Huineng believed that the division of enlightenment into two types - sudden and gradual - is empty and unnecessary, because it is foolish to go to the goal gradually, when it can be obtained suddenly. All phenomena are illusory and like fantasies. kami ... A person, dying, continues to live among people (in the earthly world) in the form of a kami, and then is born again. If a person lived in harmony with nature and society, then his soul will remain outside the body for a long time (in the form of kami) and avoid suffering that inevitably accompanies physical life. From 1868 to 1947, Shinto was the state religion of Japan. Nevertheless, since the 6th century, Shintoism has been strongly influenced by Buddhism, which is very firmly entrenched in Japan.

What attracts you to Buddhism

In 522, Buddhism began to penetrate from Korea to Japan, but the ideas of Ch'an Buddhism came to Japan in the 8th century. It must be admitted that Buddhism quickly found its adherents among government officials. So, the Japanese prince Shotoku (lifetime name of Umayada, Shotoku is a posthumous name) personally became interested in Buddhism and made comments on three sutras. With his active participation, the first Buddhist monasteries were built in Japan. Among these monasteries was Horyu-ji (temple for the study of flourishing dharma). This temple still stands in the city of Ikagura and is protected by UNESCO.

Not all Japanese clans agreed with the dogmas of Buddhism. Many clans defended old religious beliefs, which provoked a civil war between powerful clans. In this war, the adherents of the old religion were defeated, so that political power went to the adherents of Buddhism. Prince Shotoku, in accordance with the norms of Buddhism, carried out a number of reforms in the country and strengthened the central authority. During this period, Prince Shotoku first used the name

Hinomoto country

Nippon

(Rising Sun). Previously, Japan was called the country of Yamato. At this time, Buddhism became the state religion of Japan.
(Rising Sun). Previously, Japan was called the country of Yamato. At this time, Buddhism became the state religion of Japan.

(Rising Sun). Previously, Japan was called the country of Yamato. At this time, Buddhism became the state religion of Japan.

Since the 12th century, Zen schools began to take shape in Japan. Word

mental focus

... Zen is oriented towards the Mahayana school. Zen enjoyed the greatest popularity among the samurai, who, with the coming to power of the Minomoto clan, played a significant role in the country. In general, there are few fundamental differences between Ch'an and Zen, for both schools are based on meditative practice. At the same time, let us pay attention to some national features of Zen. First, we note that one of the tasks of Zen is to organize both spiritual and physical life in accordance with the life that the gods lead in heaven.

Therefore, in Zen, an important condition for gaining enlightenment is the preservation of one's individuality, the state of unbornness, when there is still no attachment to the external environment. The second condition for salvation is the correct lifestyle, which in the right direction allows organizing a number of rituals. Among these rituals, the most famous are tea ceremonies. The written texts in Zen are given minimal influence, since it is believed that it is impossible to teach a person, but it is quite possible to help him gain knowledge. True knowledge is transmitted not through the text, but orally, with direct instruction from heart to heart.

Quite deeply, Japanese culture adopted from the Ch'an school the principle of organic integrity, that is, the unity of spirit and body. Martial arts in both China and Japan are based on this principle. A person organizes his spiritual life with the help of a system of certain movements. One of the tasks of Zen martial arts is to develop the ability to change the state of consciousness without leaving meditation. The development of this ability is achieved thanks to the fast, instantly changing environment of the battle, in which it is necessary not only to concentrate one's spiritual and physical strength, to maintain absolute calm, but also to instantly react to the actions of the enemy, to a change in the situation of a duel or general battle. There were a number of exercises to help develop the ability to react and coordinate movements of the body and spirit. For example, running down a steep bushy mountain with your hands tied behind your back; archery at a fast-moving target or from a galloping horse. Especially in the martial art of Japan, the ability to remain calm and conduct a battle at will, that is, without wasting time on planning, is appreciated. Subsequently, on the basis of the martial principles of Zen, the art of ninja developed.

Zen is going through difficult times in today's world. This is largely due to the fact that after the surrender of Japan in September 1945, many martial arts schools in Japan were closed at the request of the US government. In addition, at the beginning of the 21st century in Japan, there is a severe spiritual crisis, in the conditions of which the development of the Zen school seems to be an extremely difficult process.

Buddhism in Russia Buddhism entered the territory of modern Russia quite early - in the 8th century. Buddhism penetrated the lands of the Primorsky Territory through the Bohai state, which existed until the 10th century on the territory of North Korea, Primorsky Territory and Manchuria. In the 17th century, a number of Kalmyk tribes professing Buddhism adopted Russian citizenship. It was these subjects who became the first Buddhists from the subjects of the Russian state.

In 1741, according to the decree of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, Buddhism became one of the officially recognized religions of the Russian Empire. After that, Buddhism began to gradually develop on Russian soil. Many datsans functioned in Russia - Buddhist schools-monasteries. The large datsans had three faculties: philosophy, medicine and tantric. The tantric faculty was considered especially difficult, where tantras were studied. By 1917, 35 datsans were operating in Russia. During the Stalinist repression in the 1930s, many Buddhists were repressed, and all datsans were closed.

Nevertheless, in 1945, one datsan was revived, and the ideological pressure of the Soviet state softened somewhat. The democratic reforms of the 1990s allowed Buddhism to assert itself more actively. However, the moral decline caused by the miscalculations of these reforms hinders the successful spread of Buddhism. For the period of 2010, about 30 datsans function on the territory of the Russian Federation.

LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Abaev N.V. Chan Buddhism and the culture of mental activity in medieval China / N.V. Abaev. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1989.2. Afanasyeva E. N. Theravada Buddhism and the development of Thai literature in the XIII-XVII centuries. / E.N. Afanasyev. - Moscow: IMLI RAN, 2003.3 Vsevolodov I.V. Burma: religion and politics / I.V. Vsevolodov. - Moscow: Nauka, 1978.4. Around the world. - 2007. - No. 8 (2803). 5. Myths of the peoples of the world. Encyclopedia. (In 2 volumes). - M .: "Soviet Encyclopedia". 1987.6. Timoshchuk A.S. Vedic anthropology / A.S. Timoshchuk // Religious anthropology. - Vladimir: VlSU, 2006.7.Semotyuk O.P. Buddhism: History and Modernity / O.P.Semotyuk. - Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2005.8. Torchinov E. A. Introduction to Buddhism: a course of lectures / E. A. Torchinov. - SPb: AMFORA, 2005.9. Philosophy of Chinese Buddhism. - St. Petersburg: "Classical ABC", 2001.10. Ono S. Shintoism: The Ancient Religion of Japan / S. Ono, W. Woodard - "Sophia", 2007.11. Kukai. Selected Works. Translated by A.G. Fesyun / Kukai. - M. 1999.12.Scherbatsky F.I. Selected Works on Buddhism / F.I. Shcherbatsky. - M .: Nauka, 1998. --- Author: Alexey Panishchev Buddhism is considered the oldest of the world's religions. Christianity and Islam emerged much later - six and thirteen centuries after the emergence of the Buddha's doctrine. Over the years of its formation and development, Buddhism has created and improved not only the religious worldview, but also philosophy, culture, and art. By professing this religion, a person can learn a whole spectrum of scientific knowledge, not being limited to one point of view. What is Buddhist doctrine? What are its foundations and practices?

What does the word "Buddhism" mean?

The representatives of Buddhism themselves call their religion Buddhadharma, and its founder Buddha Shakyamuni - Dharma. The concept comes from the Sanskrit phrase

buddha dharma , which in translation means

"Teaching of the Enlightened One"

... Term

"Buddhism"

was invented by Europeans in the 19th century to denote a religious and philosophical trend that came to Europe from Ancient India.

Buddhism originated around the 6th century BC thanks to the spiritual teacher Siddhattha Gotama, who later became known as Buddha. It is believed that his path to enlightenment began in previous lives, but an understanding of the harsh reality appeared only at the last birth under the name of Gotama.

At the age of 16, he married Princess Yashodhara, and at the age of 29 he got out of the palace and saw 4 so-called "spectacles" that completely turned his life around. On that day, the Buddha met a hermit, a poor man, a sick and decomposed corpse, after which he realized that neither wealth nor fame can protect people from hardship, illness and death.

What he saw prompted the Buddha to leave the palace and go in search of enlightenment. During his journey, he studied yoga, the rules of meditation, and at the age of 35, he finally attained awakening (bodhi) and received knowledge of the "Four Noble Truths."

From that time on, Buddha began to pass on the acquired knowledge to other people, and after his death all his dialogues, sayings and precepts were collected by his disciples into a single Buddhist canon "Tripitaka".

What is Buddhism?

Today Buddhism is a world religion and philosophical doctrine, although some researchers and historians call it "the science of consciousness." There are two main directions of Buddhism in the world, differing in their methods of practice and philosophical views.

The Mahayana (Great Chariot) teachings are based on beliefs about a certain path through which people can achieve bodhi. The Hinayana (Small Chariot) is based on ideas about the state of being and on the denial of the human soul as an independent entity.

In addition to the two main currents of Buddhism, there is an additional worldview of the Vajrayana (Diamond Chariot), which separated from the Mahayana in the 5th century.

Who are Buddhists?

Buddhists include adherents of the Buddhist religion, that is, people who have devoted their lives to the path to spiritual awakening. The total number of adherents of this religion in the world is more than 460 million people, of which about 1 million are Buddhist monks.

The doctrine was most widespread in Asia - mainly in the southern and eastern parts of the continent. The maximum number of Buddhists is concentrated in India, Vietnam, China, Cambodia. In Russia, Buddhist communities can be found in Tuva, Kalmykia and Buryatia. What are the Four Noble Truths?

The Buddhist teachings are based on the Four Noble Truths, the knowledge of which allows people to come to awakening.

First, Buddhists believe that there is suffering (dukkha) in the world.

Secondly, dukkha has reasons.

Thirdly, everyone has the opportunity to get rid of suffering by removing the cause of dukkha.

And, fourthly, adherents of Buddhism believe that there is a path in the world by following which one can get rid of dukkha.

How is Buddhism different from other world religions?

If we compare Buddhism with monotheistic religions that recognize the oneness of God, then its main difference is the fact that Buddhists do not believe in the existence of a creator God.

They do not recognize the creation of the world by the Almighty and believe that it was not created by anyone and is not controlled by anyone. The doctrine denies the possibility of atonement for sins, there is no heresy and unconditional faith in it. In addition, in Buddhism, there are no uniform textual canons and a common religious organization analogous to Christian churches.

Hello dear readers - seekers of knowledge and truth!

Buddhism is considered the most ancient world religion. At the mention of this word, the imagination takes many to a colorful temple with an upturned roof somewhere in Asia: Thailand, Cambodia, China, Mongolia or Tibet.

How is Buddhism different from other world religions?

Meanwhile, it spread far beyond the East: to Europe, America and even to the most remote corners of our planet. Buddhism in Russia exists not only in the republics of Buryatia, Kalmykia and Tuva, but also in other cities of our country - Buddhist centers are gradually appearing there.

Korean buddhism

Have you ever wondered what Buddhists believe? Today we will be looking for the answer. This article will briefly tell you what Buddhists believe on, how they look at the world, whom they worship, how they relate to God and how they try to live.

Content:

Foundations of Faith

Buddhist lifestyle

  • Relationship to God
  • Conclusion
  • So, go ahead and find the answers!

... In Korea, this type of teaching has centuries-old traditions. However, one hundred or two hundred years ago, it seemed that this teaching had lost its meaning. This was until the middle of the twentieth century. But in the wake of the growing interest in Zen Buddhism in the West, Korean Buddhism is also undergoing a revival. The best example is the Zen Kwame Um school.

If we compare Buddhism with monotheistic religions that recognize the oneness of God, then its main difference is the fact that Buddhists do not believe in the existence of a creator God.

The concept of "Buddhism" appeared only two centuries ago thanks to immigrants from Europe. The adherents themselves call it "Dharma" - the teaching or "Budhadharma" - the teaching of the Buddha. This name will be more accurate, because Buddhism is more of a philosophy, cultural tradition, worldview with its own rules of ethics and morality, rather than a religion.

Buddhists believe in the words of their Master Buddha Shakyamuni that all life is suffering, and the main goal of life is to get rid of it.

  1. We come to this world, grow up, become attached to people, things, reach material heights, get sick, die and suffer all this time. The main cause of suffering lies in ourselves, in habits, wrong values, illusions.
  2. You can free yourself by getting rid of them. To do this, you need to follow certain rules, meditate, contemplate the inner spirit, limit yourself from sensual pleasures. Any dogmas can be understood only by passing them through the prism of oneself, one's own experience - then it is possible to achieve nirvana.
  3. A person lives in an illusory world, does not notice the delusions surrounding him, receives the consequences of actions in the past, dies, and after death is reborn, suffers again until he reaches Enlightenment. This vision of life is closely related to certain concepts:
  4. Karma is the causal relationship of any event, good or bad. Everything that happens to us now is a consequence of the actions of the past, and every act, word or even thought in the present will become the cause of future events. Karma can work outside of this life and spread to subsequent rebirths.

Perhaps the species presented here and their brief descriptions were useful for those interested in this ancient religious denomination. I am deeply convinced that the idea of ​​being a Buddhist is one of the most valuable human desires, which in some strange way is close to every person.

Maya is a reflection of the illusory nature of life, the fickleness of the world, an uninterrupted chain of suffering. A good metaphor for the Maya would be the idea of ​​clouds that gradually change their shape, a mosaic of bubbles on water that changes shape.

  • Samsara is a series of reincarnations that haunts all people. Buddhists believe in reincarnation - the cycle of rebirth. Being born all in new images, a person does not stop suffering, feels the karmic consequences of past lives, live in a changeable world with passing things, and so on in a circle. To break the wheel of samsara means to attain nirvana.
  • The Buddhist firmly believes in the dogmas of the Teachings transmitted by the Buddha. He studies the scriptures, leads a correct lifestyle, meditates and strives for the highest goal - Awakening. In this he is helped by the truths, the prescribed commandments, the stages of the eightfold path.
  • The teaching is based on four truths that are immutable for any adherent of Buddhism.
  • Dukkha - speaks of the cycle of suffering. All human life is saturated with suffering: birth, growing up, problems, attachments, fears, guilt, illness, death. To realize your “I” in the midst of this whirlwind is the initial stage of knowing the truth.
  • Trishna - talks about the reasons for dukkha. Desires and the associated dissatisfaction create suffering. Having received one, a person begins to desire more. The ever increasing appetite, the will for life itself - this is the whole reason.
  • Nirodha - knows about the completion of dukha. One can find freedom only by letting go of unnecessary attachments, destructive emotions, and by discovering piety in oneself. The best victory over suffering is to stop fighting it, get rid of desires, and purify yourself spiritually.
  • Marga - speaks of the true path. Following the path of the Buddha, it is important to observe the Middle Way - not to go from one extreme to another, from complete satiety to absolute asceticism. The Teacher himself needed clothing, food, shelter, so a true Buddhist should not exhaust himself to the point of exhaustion.
  • The so-called Eightfold Path is also associated with marga. According to him, a follower of Buddhist philosophy observes purity in everything:

sees the world correctly;

  • clean in thought and kind in intention;
  • does not allow bad words, empty phrases;
  • honest in actions;
  • leads a righteous life;
  • tries on the way to the goal;

Buddhism is more a philosophical direction than a religion, it does not consider the presence of a deity who created the universe, as in the religions familiar to our society. There is only "deva", but these are not deities that control the destinies of people and the universe, they are the same people, just from a different reality. Just like Buddha, who was a real person who lived 2.5 thousand years ago, so the question - "Do you believe in Buddha?" Has no meaning in Buddhist philosophy.

controls thoughts and feelings;

They do not recognize the creation of the world by the Almighty and believe that it was not created by anyone and is not controlled by anyone. The doctrine denies the possibility of atonement for sins, there is no heresy and unconditional faith in it. In addition, in Buddhism, there are no uniform textual canons and a common religious organization analogous to Christian churches.

learns to concentrate, meditates.

A true Buddhist can easily win the I never ... game because he never:

Philosophy of Buddhism_schools

does not kill, does not harm all living things;

does not steal;

does not lie;

does not commit adultery;

does not use alcohol or drugs.

Real adherents of the teachings can amaze with high morality, moral foundations, which are supported by the indisputable rules of life, willpower, which helps them in meditations, readings of mantras. The highest goal is the attainment of nirvana, and they boldly walk the path to it.

Anopova E. "Law or open book of Karma" photo

Hello dear readers - seekers of knowledge and truth!

Each religion assumes faith in God: Islam - in Allah, Christianity - in the Holy Trinity, Hinduism - in Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu and other gods. And Buddhism - into Buddha, you say? The point is that this is not entirely true.

Buddha is not a god, he is an ordinary person who was born in India and bore the name of Siddhartha Gautama. He, like all of us, lived his own life: he was born into the family of a king, got married, gave birth to a son, then saw the pain and suffering of the world, went into the forests in search of truth, attained Enlightenment, helped people go a similar path, preaching the doctrine, until he reached parinirvana.

Thus, Buddha is not the Supreme, but the great Teacher.

According to Buddhist philosophy, the world appeared on its own, without the participation of higher forces, divine principles. It is not God who will save a person, but he himself, following the prescribed rules, calming the mind, meditating and improving.

Does this mean that there is no God in Buddhism? Yes, it does. True, there is one caveat in this statement.
Does this mean that there is no God in Buddhism? Yes, it does. True, there is one caveat in this statement.

In some currents of philosophical thought, especially in the Vajrayana, Buddha Shakyamuni began to deify, make offerings, and pray. Along with this, a whole pantheon of deities, spirits, buddhas, boddhisattvas appeared, whom they began to worship in pursuit of the earliest Enlightenment. The reason for this is the remnants of shamanism, which left traces in the Buddhist teachings that absorbed it. Buddhist currents are quite different from each other. Some include many rituals, and from the outside it seems like worship of a deity, others are laconic and do not recognize any saints and authorities, except for their own heart. The general Buddhist scriptures on the subject of God do not say anything. Buddhist faith, like faith in general, gives strength, inspires, inspires, helps to get on the true path. We were glad to open the door to the soul of a Buddhist for you a little. May there be light and peace in your life!

Thank you very much for your attention, dear readers! We will be grateful for the link on social networks)
Thank you very much for your attention, dear readers! We will be grateful for the link on social networks)

See you soon! Buddhism is one of the world's religions, but Buddhists themselves do not agree with this definition. Indeed, Buddhism can hardly be called a religion. There is no god in him to whom you can pray and everything will be corrected. There is no sacred book in Buddhism either. Source: https://wallpaperplay.com/board/zen-buddhism-wallpapers Bud yes - the same person who once saw his sight and his nickname has common roots with the word in Russian and means “about

bougie

money ". This awakened one did not call to believe in anything and hope for someone. Moreover, he advised his disciples not to speculate about God, since this is absolutely useless. He was convinced that a person
money ". This awakened one did not call to believe in anything and hope for someone. Moreover, he advised his disciples not to speculate about God, since this is absolutely useless. He was convinced that a person's life was in his hands.

Source: https://yandex.com.tr/collections/card/5aa621af2b64824818f5036e/

  1. Buddha was born into a wealthy family in northern India two thousand years ago. His name was
  2. Siddhattha Gotama.
  3. Once, having visited places that were strictly forbidden for him, he realized that his whole life is filled with suffering. The main task that a person must set himself is to free himself from them and understand that all the most important is only in the soul. The awakened one was called
  4. Budda Shakyamuni

(Shakya is the name of his family).

In the original Buddhism, there is no mysticism, there are no horror stories about hell. But there is logic and understanding of the work of human consciousness.
In the original Buddhism, there is no mysticism, there are no horror stories about hell. But there is logic and understanding of the work of human consciousness.

Source: https://www.aaronrogerson.com/single-post/2015/01/04/Stillness-My-5-Minutes-Each-Day#! The Buddha made several precise and concise conclusions: Life is full of misery.

The cause of suffering: the desire for the pleasant and not the desire for the unpleasant. Life is possible without suffering.

There is a path to liberation from suffering.

Buddhists believe that what we call "God" exists in every living being in the form of a potential that can be developed. God in everyone is our consciousness. Having purified and attained enlightenment, everyone can become the same Buddha. Source: https://yandex.ru/collections/card/5c14278d9e8e40eed455d984/

Many of you have heard of concepts such as
Many of you have heard of concepts such as

Rebirth, karma and dharma. I think there is no need to explain what rebirth is. Karma

- law of energy conservation. This is what makes us return to the wheel of life. Nothing just appears and nothing disappears without a trace. The same applies to deeds. Once we have done bad things, we will have to pay the price. If we have done good, we will receive a reward. Our mistake is only that we do not see causes and effects, and sometimes it is very difficult to connect them.
- law of energy conservation. This is what makes us return to the wheel of life. Nothing just appears and nothing disappears without a trace. The same applies to deeds. Once we have done bad things, we will have to pay the price. If we have done good, we will receive a reward. Our mistake is only that we do not see causes and effects, and sometimes it is very difficult to connect them.

Buddhism says that misfortunes and fortunes are the result of our own actions. It is not possible to pay off all debts in one life, so we are reborn (it’s also good if a human, but you can be reborn as an animal). And here we come to the "dharma". Dharma - the doctrine of the law of the universe and the rules according to which you need to behave.

  • Source: https://eraofunity.world/sanatana-dharma/yoga/karma-yoga/
  • Suppose a person is freed from suffering, who will he be born, perhaps, you think? Very simple. Such a soul is no longer obliged to be born on Earth and gets into other worlds. But it is quite possible that she will become bored there, she will remember all her relatives who remained on earth and continue to suffer, and will want to reincarnate on our planet again. Such a person is called
  • Bodhisattva
("bodhi" is awakening, "sattva" is the essence).
("bodhi" is awakening, "sattva" is the essence).

Source: https://www.oum.ru/literature/buddizm/bodkhisattva-akashagarbkha/

  • You might think that Buddhists don't care about peace and the main thing is just their peace of mind, but this is not true.
  • Compassion
  • - one of the most important concepts in Buddhism. A person cannot be good while others are suffering. Being benevolent towards people builds up positive energy.
  • - Buddhists do not forcefully incline anyone to their worldview. They never fought for it.
  • - Demonstration of miracles is pride and absolutely pointless. - Buddhists do not argue with science and say that if their worldview is proven wrong, they will change their teachings. But at the moment, scientists, on the contrary, are increasingly agreeing with Buddhism.

Source: https://yandex.by/collections/card/5aadea5fd7f77d6526e2e3df/

Ideas that Buddha suggested to people:

- No need to go to extremes.

- Do not harm living beings. - Live virtuously. - Meditate.

- Read mantras.

The reasoning always has a logical completion - a ready-made answer. If you like to argue and have an answer to any question, you are a clever, who is still growing and growing to awareness.

Philosophy of Buddhism_Buddha

(Mantras are a set of sounds, the repeated repetition of which is designed to harmonize the body's work and create peace of mind. Indeed, scientists confirm the strongest effect of sound on living and even inanimate organisms).

Before his death, Buddha said:

"All things are impermanent in nature, work towards your salvation."

what is Buddhism

Since then, Buddhism has branched out into several directions.

What attracts you to Buddhism most

? Write in the comments!

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Introduction

Introduction

It is impossible in a short article to describe everything that I want to say about Buddhism and describe all types of schools and philosophies. But let's try, based on the most important of them, to understand what Buddhism is and how this orthodox spiritual teaching affects the spiritualization of society, how its awareness and responsibility develops.

  1. To do this, we need to talk a little not only about religion itself, but also about how humanity went with it after several thousand years of its existence. We will try to be objective in assessing this doctrine.
  2. What is Buddhism?
  3. Buddhism - this is a religious and philosophical doctrine, a world religion that points to the personality of Buddha as an enlightened person, mentions his revolutionary approach to the relationship between man and God, in comparison with the then existing religious orders. The founder of this oldest religious denomination, which arose in the 6th century. BC. (in North India), is Buddha Shakyamuni. The exact number of Buddhists is very difficult to establish, there are about 500 million around the world, most of whom live in China. Buddhism focuses on the human aspects - the basic tenets of this religion. It, especially in his most modern directions, says that we ourselves are responsible for our own destiny, not only in this life, but no less important, in the next incarnations of the immortal soul. Four classic principles
  4. The assumptions of early Buddhism are extremely simple and based on four classical principles:

Life is suffering;

This truth explains why there is suffering - we suffer because we ourselves want it;

This principle of Buddhism talks about observing ourselves in order to get out of the grip of suffering, while we must completely give up our desires. In Buddhism, this means knowing complete bliss, tranquility, getting rid of worldly passions, eradicating hatred and knowing the true nature of things, that is, reaching the state of nirvana. To cognize this state, Buddhist monks undergo training, meditate, engage in patronage, worship saints and thereby free themselves from their own ego (called "moksha"), rejecting human desires and passions. There are two ways of salvation: 1)

Hinayana

- this is a narrow path of salvation, achieved in Buddhist monasteries, and the knowledge of nirvana comes after death; 2)

Mahayana

- a wide path, cognition of nirvana occurs for a time during life, and after death it is achieved forever.

This rule is a series of instructions on how to achieve this state (coinciding at many points with the Christian Ten Commandments). Every Buddhist during his mundane life follows the middle path of existence on the path to attaining nirvana - this is the basic teaching of the Buddha, also called the eightfold path of salvation. It is based on eight states:

- correct speech - abstaining from lies, foul language, idle talk and speeches that can sow enmity and lead to evil;

wheel of suffering

- the correct way of life - not to harm all living things, to earn a living without contradicting Buddhist values, to lead a modest life, without luxury and other excesses;

- concentration - strive to get rid of rigid beliefs and fill your mind with positive thoughts, learn to contemplate and learn the truth;

- correct view - understanding of the Four Noble Truths (Samsara is suffering; suffering has a cause and an end; there is a path leading to the end of suffering); - doing the right thing - doing good deeds, refraining from theft, adultery and the desire to beat other creatures; - correct thoughts - to understand that all evil comes from our flesh;

- correct intentions - to change your desires and intentions. Replace cruelty and harm with compassion; sensual pleasures - for dedication to spirituality; anger - for goodwill.

- the right efforts - to drive away all evil, tune in a positive way and try to always follow your thoughts. The cause of suffering: the desire for the pleasant and not the desire for the unpleasant. These are the foundations of Buddhism, which over the centuries have been fully transformed into the state religion, and have also become an integral attribute of the secular and cultural life of the entire eastern community.

Basic concepts of Buddhism

The three main concepts of Buddhism: one. Dharma

novices at meal

- there is truth and wisdom, the very core of the science of the transcendental Buddha.

It gives an understanding of what is happening to us and what should happen. As a result of our understanding this truth, we must do something with ourselves. Our inner duty is to free ourselves from suffering. Everyone must come to himself the true way of completely freeing his spiritual principle from all kinds of layers created by our ego.

prince Gautama2. - is a causal relationship of events that determine our current and future living conditions. This is what we are and arises from who we were and what we did in previous incarnations. Each new incarnation is a chance to improve your destiny.

Buddhism in KoreaWhat is Karma, read this article >> 3.

What is Buddhism - Chto takoe buddizm?Nirvana - the last great concept of Buddhism and is the best "reward" for our good deeds in relation to ourselves and to other people, to the world around us, to being in general. It is a consequence of the interruption of the rotation of the wheel of Samsara, alternating birth and death until the final liberation from the sufferings and desires of this world.

Buddhism isTypes of Buddhism I do not pretend to be an exhaustive completeness of the narrative, I show only the main types of Buddhism and the huge cultural life that is hidden behind one of the most numerous religions in the world. Theravada Hinayana .

... This type of Buddhism survived in South Asia and includes South India, Ceylon, Indochina. This is the oldest form of Buddhist teaching. Very old texts of the Buddhist canon have survived, which contains a rich collection of commandments and parables. It is the most primitive form of Buddhist religion and is not widespread.

Chinese Buddhism

Buddhism concepts.

.Grown in India, he rushed to China, which became the ideal "relay station" to the entire East, and then to the West. As a result of such complex metamorphoses and transformations, the Ch'an school was created in China, which is the basis of Zen Buddhism, which spread to Japan and Korea. The school was founded by Bodhidharma Buddha, who arrived in China in the 5th century BC. Over time, it has become the most important original form of Chinese Buddhism, which has gained a prominent place among other areas of systems thinking and beliefs in China - Confucianism and Taoism.

Tibetan Buddhism

Buddhism concepts.... It is the most colorful, most scenic Buddhist destination in the world. It consists of two elements. First, the structure of the religion itself is Lamaism, another name for Buddhism currently used in Tibet. It became the main local belief - a religion full of ghosts, magic and gods. The second characteristic of Lamaism is very different from other schools of Buddhism - it is the unusually strong position of the priests (lamas). Tibet before the Chinese invasion was the most theocratic state in the world - a third of the population were monks. ?Japanese

Types of Buddhism - Vidy buddizma.... This type of Buddhism is divided into several sects, of which I will discuss the most important in chronological order. They originate from two main traditions - Rinzai and Soto

Types of Buddhism.Shin Buddhism comes from the name of Amida Buddha, who reigns in the paradise of the "pure land". In order to go to heaven, a Buddhist must pronounce the name of Amida Buddha. This concept is widely known throughout the history of the development of Buddhism in India and China, but only in Japan, the monk Honen (1133-1212) announced that the inspired utterance of the name of Buddha is enough. You do not need good thoughts, deeds or meditations, you just repeat the formula of Namu Amida Butsu (hence the other name for this sect - nembutsu) and this can achieve salvation. The monk Sinran, who lived 1173-1262 and was a disciple of Honen, after a while came with his own original thesis that the very existence of every person's life is not given by the Buddha and no longer need to call his name in order to be saved and come to eternal bliss and harmony.

1st type.Nichiren is perhaps the most controversial version of the Buddha's teachings. The sect was founded by Nichiren, who lived from 1222-1282 and was a great religious reformer. Historical events of that time contributed to the origin of this tradition - Japan was haunted by military conflicts and natural disasters. He used this fact to argue that in order to achieve peace and tranquility, one religion must be created in Japan - Buddhism in such a form that it contributes to the achievement of enlightenment. Thus, a fanatical, ultranationalist religious movement is created, a kind of "Japanese national Buddhism."

What is Zen Buddhism

Hello dear readers - seekers of knowledge and truth!

It is the most advanced form. Rejects any external religious attributes - hierarchies and rituals, as well as any intellectual aids that contribute to enlightenment (sermons and holy books of Wisdom). Enlightenment comes here and now, and it is only through contemplation that liberation from selfishness occurs. This state is achieved through zazen or sitting in the lotus flower position, rejoicing in the breath - these are the conditions necessary in order to accept the compassionate Buddha nature.

Philosophy of Buddhism and its main provisions

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