The situation when the air temperature is uncomfortable in a living room - hot or, conversely, cold - is not uncommon. But a comfortable temperature is a subjective concept, therefore, to determine the optimal temperature in a living room, a set of standards is used - GOST and SanPiN.
In this article, we will talk about the standards governing the temperature regime in the living quarters, the optimal and acceptable standards. How to make measurements, what to do if the temperature does not meet the standards, and in what way you can solve the problem.
Comfortable living room temperature
A comfortable temperature is, first of all, the choice of each individual person: some love the coolness and feel comfortable for them at + 18 ° C, others feel comfortable only when the temperature is above + 22 ° C, it all depends on personal preferences and characteristics of the body.
But despite the preferences, you should still adhere to the temperature norms that are optimal for the human body. To do this, you need to know what temperature should be in living quarters, in accordance with the adopted legislative acts and regulations - GOST and SanPiN.
This will allow not only to control the temperature regime that is optimal for health, but also to defend your rights, in case of deviation from the standards, for example, to file a claim with the management company.
Air temperature for residential premises in accordance with GOST and SanPiN
GOST 30494-2011 "Indoor microclimate parameters" is the main document in the field of indoor microclimate, which should be guided by. It contains general requirements for optimal and permissible microclimate indicators and air quality: air temperature, air speed, relative humidity and carbon dioxide content.
SanPiN 18.104.22.16845-10 "Sanitary and Epidemiological Requirements for Living Conditions in Residential Buildings and Premises" are the rules and regulations approved by the decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation. These norms must be taken into account at all stages of construction and apply to the entire period of operation of the building. For non-compliance with the rules of SanPiN, not only legal entities, but also individuals are responsible. Residential building maintenance organizations must provide adequate temperature and air exchange.
Temperature standards for residential premises in accordance with GOST and SanPiN
According to GOST and SanPiN for residential premises, the following optimal and permissible air temperature standards are established:
- During the cold season Optimum temperature - 20-22 ° С, permissible temperature - 18-24 ° С
- During the warm period Optimum temperature - 22-25 ° С, permissible temperature - 20-28 ° С
It should be borne in mind that there is a difference between the optimal and permissible temperature standards.
In the cold period, the optimum air temperature in the room is 20 - 22 ° C, the permissible temperature is 18 - 24 ° C
The optimum temperature for living quarters are indicators that, with prolonged exposure to a person, provide a normal state of the body and a feeling of comfort.
Permissible indicators are values that, with prolonged exposure to a person, can lead to a feeling of discomfort, deterioration of well-being and a decrease in working capacity, but at the same time do not cause deterioration in health.
Also, sanitary standards indicate that in corner rooms where 2 walls face the street, the air temperature should be 2 ° C higher.
Optimal temperatures by type of living quarters
The temperature standard during the heating season is:
- Living room (bedroom, living room) Optimum temperature - 20 - 22 ° С, permissible temperature - 18 - 24 ° С
- Kitchen Optimum temperature - 19 - 21 ° С, permissible temperature - 18 - 26 ° С
- Restroom Optimum temperature - 19 - 21 ° С, permissible temperature - 18 - 26 ° С
- Bathroom, combined bathroom Optimum temperature - 24 - 26 ° С, permissible temperature - 18 - 26 ° С
To ensure the optimal temperature in the living room, it is important to adhere to these sanitary standards, but it is equally important to be guided by common sense, since in addition to the "actual temperature" in the living room, there are factors that affect the "perceived" temperature - how the human body is on actually feels this temperature.
Air temperature and perceived temperature
Within the framework of the microclimate of the premises, such a concept is distinguished as the "perceived" temperature and it differs from the actual temperature in the room. In fact, this is the temperature that a person feels in the body.
For example, in the weather forecast reports the inscription "temperature + 12 ° С, it feels like + 9 ° С" - this is the very "felt" temperature. For living quarters, the "actual" and "perceived" temperature is also determined and it depends on several factors:
- The air temperature is the room temperature that the meter displays.
- Radiation temperature is the average temperature of the interior surfaces of a room (walls, floor, ceiling) and heating devices, that is, the heat that comes from heating devices (radiators - hence the name) and heat loss due to walls, windows and other cold surfaces.
- The speed of air movement is the average mobility of the air in the room, an indicator of how the air “walks” and at what speed there are drafts.
- Relative humidity is a value that indicates the content of water vapor in the air.
These indicators affect human perception of air temperature and must be taken into account to create a comfortable microclimate. Air temperature at different levels of humidity and air speed is felt differently.
For example, on a summer day with high humidity, it is more difficult to endure the heat, and if the humidity is lower, then at the same temperature a person is more comfortable.
Perceived temperature is the temperature that a person senses in the body. It depends on the actual and radiation temperature, humidity and air velocity.
Let's say the air temperature in the room is + 22 ° С, which corresponds to the GOST standards, but the humidity is only 20%. Accordingly, the body will feel a lower temperature. If you raise the humidity to 45%, then the air will seem warmer, despite the fact that the temperature has remained unchanged.
Read more about humidity in our article “ Optimal air humidity in the apartment ".
Also, the perceived temperature is strongly influenced by the speed of air movement, as it creates a strong cooling effect. The higher the speed, the lower the room temperature is perceived. Therefore, fans are used in summer, although they do not cool the air, they create an intense flow, due to which it is perceived to be cooler.
Radiation temperature also affects the perception of heat or cold. For example, if the wall facing the street is poorly insulated, then he will blow it, and even if the room is warm, the person will feel a draft. Also with heating radiators - you may not be in the immediate vicinity of the heating device, but still feel its warmth.
Therefore, even if the optimal temperature is selected for heating according to GOST and SanPiN, but the room has low humidity, many cold surfaces and high air speed, discomfort and cold will be felt. It is important to maintain optimal values for each microclimate indicator.
Consequences of non-compliance with temperature standards
The microclimate in houses and apartments directly affects a person. Constant exposure to low or high temperatures can have a negative effect on the state of the body. The risk group most often includes people suffering from cardiovascular, respiratory and allergic diseases, the elderly and children.
The increased air temperature in the room leads to a decrease in physical and mental performance, rapid fatigue, increases the load on the cardiovascular system, and a violation of the water-electrolyte balance. And if there is also high humidity in the room, then this is a favorable atmosphere for the development of mold fungi.
At low temperatures, excessive heat loss occurs, which increases the risk of colds and acute respiratory diseases, aggravates the course of chronic diseases, especially musculoskeletal diseases, and exacerbates inflammatory processes.
It is especially important to monitor the temperature regime in the rooms for babies, because the child's body is sensitive even to a slight deviation from the optimal temperatures by a couple of degrees. Pediatricians recommend maintaining a constant temperature in children's rooms at 22-24 ° C.
But in the desire to bring the indicators to optimal values, do not forget about airing. A person needs fresh air, and if you close all the windows so that the temperature does not drop, then the level of carbon dioxide begins to rise continuously. And the more people in the room, the more actively CO2 increases, which can lead to negative consequences. It is necessary to maintain a balance between temperature and air quality. Read more about the effect of carbon dioxide in the article “ Carbon dioxide and its effects on the human body ".
Rules for measuring air temperature in a living room
If there is discomfort in the room due to low or high air temperature and there are suspicions that it does not meet the standards, then it is necessary to take measurements. The results will be the basis for filing a complaint with the appropriate authorities.
The main methods for measuring room temperature:
- Take a measurement yourself using a room thermometer. But these results cannot be used if official confirmation of violations by the management company is needed.
- Independently using a special device, for example, a base station of the MagicAir smart microclimate system (for more information about this device, see our article " Why is the MagicAir system needed? ").
- Call the emergency dispatch service, which will carry out the necessary measurements and draw up an act of compliance with the temperature regime in the premises to GOST standards. Before contacting the emergency dispatch service, it is advisable to carry out a preliminary measurement yourself in order to compare the results obtained.
In order to take measurements on your own, you need to place the thermometer at a distance of at least 1 meter from the outer walls and at a height of at least 1.5 meters. Control measurements are made every hour during the day.
Responsibility of public utilities
The management company or the organization providing public services is responsible for compliance with the permissible temperature indicators in residential premises in accordance with sanitary standards.
If the measurements show that the air temperature in the dwelling does not correspond to the standards, and the deviation is more than 3 degrees during the day and 5 degrees at night, it is necessary to call the emergency dispatch service.
After the call, a team should come to inspect and identify the reasons for the temperature deviation. Perhaps the problem can be solved already at this stage. If the cause is a blockage, then the dispatching team will eliminate it.
Then you need to submit an application for measuring the temperature in the apartment to the management company. The application is written in 2 copies, the signature and seal of the management company must be affixed. According to this application, a commission must come, take measurements with special certified equipment and draw up an act.
In case of disagreement with this act, the consumer has the right to demand a new inspection, but with the presence of a representative of the state housing inspection.
If the temperature in the apartment does not meet the requirements of GOST and SanPin, you should submit a written statement about the inconsistency of the microclimate parameters to the management company. If, according to the results of the appeal, the problem is not resolved and the response of the management company is not satisfied, it is necessary to write a complaint to Rospotrebnadzor or the housing inspectorate.
According to Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 05/06/2011 N 354 (as amended on 06/29/2020) "On the provision of utilities to owners and users of premises in apartment buildings and residential buildings" , the consumer has the right to require the management company to conduct an inspection, provide an inspection report and an act on the elimination of identified deficiencies.
If the temperature in the apartment does not meet the requirements of GOST and sanitary standards of SanPiN, you should submit a written statement about the inconsistency of the microclimate parameters to the management company or organization providing utilities
So you can claim to recalculate the payment for heat supply and adjust it. In case of inconsistency of the room temperature with the standards, a reduced utility rate is applied. When the consumer applies, the management company is obliged to check the accrued fee and issue documents with correctly calculated payments no later than 1 month from the date of the appeal.
- Calling the emergency dispatch service to conduct an inspection and identify the causes of deviations
- Applying for air temperature measurements to the management company
- Departure of the commission for taking measurements of air temperature and drawing up an act
- In case of deviations, submission of an application for inconsistency of microclimate parameters to the management company
- If the problem is not resolved, filing a complaint with Rospotrebnadzor or the housing commission
The consequences for utilities are regulated and, in accordance with the decree, the user has the right to demand from the management company compensation for losses and damage caused by the provision of utilities of inadequate quality.
How to raise or lower the temperature in a living room
To regulate the temperature in a living room, there is a climatic technology with the appropriate functionality: some devices are designed to cool rooms, others for heating, some of them are designed to perform both of these functions. There are also climatic equipment on the market that additionally humidifies, disinfects and purifies the air.
It's cold indoors in winter
The most common reasons why the room is cold during the heating season are:
- Central heating does not cope - that is, utilities of inadequate quality are provided;
- A plug in the batteries is an accumulation of air that prevents the coolant from circulating correctly in the system;
- Heat loss of an apartment - cold floor and ceiling, poorly installed or old windows, angular arrangement of an apartment and thin walls lead to heat loss.
In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to insulate the apartment, replace or repair windows, "release" plugs from the batteries, or contact the management company.
You can also use additional heating devices - electric heaters. But this method has several disadvantages:
- Electric heaters are quite bulky and take up a lot of space, so they need to be stored somewhere when they are not in use.
- They are economically costly - on average, one device consumes energy from 1 to 2 kW / h, and in order to heat one room it will take several hours, but if you turn it off, then the room will quickly begin to cool down.
- Some types of electric heaters burn dust and give off an unpleasant odor.
- At the same time, they are fire hazardous and when using them, the safety requirements specified in the instructions must be strictly observed.
- When using electric heaters in the room, the humidity decreases and the level of carbon dioxide increases, which can cause negative consequences for the body.
The increased level of carbon dioxide leads to the fact that the room becomes stuffy, it becomes necessary to ventilate - that is, to open the window. But cold air enters the room through the window, the meaning of heating is immediately lost. By opening windows in winter, we heat the street.
Air conditioners with a heating function are also not the best solution. The use of air conditioning systems in winter is possible, but subject to the requirements for a minimum outdoor temperature of up to -5 ° C. In winter, an operating air conditioner is exposed to increased loads, which leads to its rapid wear and the lower the temperature, the higher the risk of causing the device to become unusable. Also, air conditioners are not able to lower the level of carbon dioxide, since they do not supply fresh air to the room. In this article, we explain why air conditioning doesn't make the air fresher.
But you can ventilate without opening a window - using the ventilation system. Air from the street will be forced into the room through a special channel. Of all the supply ventilation systems, a breather will become the optimal one in terms of functionality, time and cost. The breather will supply air from the street to the room, while cleaning it using a filtration system and heating it to the desired temperature. In this article, we explain what a breather is and how it works.
It's hot indoors in winter
It also happens that the room is too hot during the heating season. The central heating system works too intensively, and with a poorly working hood and weak draft, heat surpluses appear - a person is "hot".
To avoid excess heat, it is necessary to put thermostats on the batteries and set them to the optimum temperature.
You can also cool the room by ventilation through the window. But regularly opening windows in winter is quite problematic, because sharp currents of cold air will flow into the room, which is not comfortable for people in it.
The breather also solves the problem of heat surpluses: it supplies cool air from the street, diluting the overheated air in the room and removes the exhaust air, pushing it into the exhaust ventilation. Thus, the overall room temperature is lowered. In addition, the breather cleans the air from external contaminants by passing it through a staged filtration system.
Air passing through a breather mixes better with indoor air than air entering through an open window. A wide flow of air from a window has a low speed due to which it mixes worse with the air in the room. The breather, on the other hand, produces a narrow stream of air at a higher speed, so it fills the space more efficiently. The distribution of air flow temperatures is more even, without differences. A person near the breather will not feel cold air currents, at the same time, if a person is at an open window, he will feel them in full.
It's hot indoors in summer
It can get very hot indoors on a sunny summer day. When the temperature is high outside, neither airing nor blackout curtains covering the windows from the scorching sun will help.
In this case, it is recommended to install an air conditioner. The downside is that the air conditioner does not provide fresh air, so you still have to ventilate. But through an open window in summer, hot air from the street will enter the room, as well as dust, insects and plant pollen, which is dangerous for allergy sufferers.
Therefore, the best solution would be to use an air conditioner in conjunction with a breather. Together, these devices complement each other perfectly. The breather brings fresh clean air into the room, and the air conditioner cools it down and there is no need to open a window.
It's cold indoors in summer
In summer, the room is not only hot, but also cold - the central heating has already been turned off, and the summer was not the warmest. In such cases, electric heaters are often used.
But as we said above, electric heaters are not the best solution. They are bulky, have high energy consumption, are unsafe to use, and give off unpleasant odors. When used indoors, humidity decreases and CO2 levels rise.
Therefore, just like in winter, a breather will be the best solution for heating the air in cold summer.
It is also important to take into account that the heaters are turned on only for a short period, when the central heating system cannot cope or in the off-season, when the apartment is cold. And breathers, thanks to their functionality, can be used all year round. Heating the air is not the main task of the breather, but this function helps out when you need to raise the temperature in the room by a few degrees.
The breather provides the necessary and sufficient air flow from the street, cleans it from dust, pollen and other pollutants using a multi-stage filtration system and warms it up to a comfortable temperature.
Thus, a breather is a device that, in any situation outside the window and in any season, will be able to maintain a comfortable temperature in the room and saturate it with fresh, clean air.
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What should be the temperature in the office?
GOST 30494-96 regulates the following values:
- Summer conditions: what temperature should be in the apartment in summer according to the norms - 24.5 ° C with an allowable range of 23-26 ° C
- Normal room temperature in winter: optimal temperature 22 ° C with an allowable range of 20-23.5 ° C
- Temperature standard in the apartment: 20 ° C;
- What temperature should be in the apartment according to the law during the heating season - 20-25 ° C
NOTE ... CSA indicates what should be the temperature in the apartment in winter according to the standards. Both of these conditions are based on ASHRAE 55 Table 3 at 50% RH and an average air velocity <0.15 m / s.
GOST 30494-96 Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (ASHRAE) Thermal Environmental Conditions for Humans assumes that these recommended temperature ranges meet the needs of at least 80% of people. Some people may feel uncomfortable even when these values are met. Additional measures may be required. In some situations, there may be special requirements for legislation.
A list of temperature requirements specified in legislation is available in the Occupational Safety Answers document.
The standard uses a graphical comfort zone method that takes into account the factors of relative humidity, coefficient of humidity, operating temperature, and wet ball temperature with notes on clothing, metabolic rate, radiant temperature, and air velocity.
The Appendix states that “there are no specified lower humidity limits for thermal comfort; therefore, this standard does not establish a minimum moisture level. " What temperature should be in the room is decided by the owner himself, GOST will only tell you the optimal conditions.
Temperature recommendations (above) are based on an average humidity of 50%.
Relative humidity below 20% can cause discomfort due to dry eyes, mucous membranes and skin. Low relative humidity levels can also cause static electricity to build up and negatively affect the operation of some office devices such as printers and computers. Relative humidity above 70% can lead to condensation on surfaces and inside equipment and building structures. Left alone, these areas can develop into mold and mildew. Higher humidity also makes the area feel stuffy.
The Occupational Safety and Health Guide (Russia) states that relative humidity between 40% and 70% has no significant effect on thermal comfort. What is the comfortable temperature in the apartment is an extensible concept, but it is within the range of 17-25 degrees Celsius.
Air velocity can be generated by the air conditioning or ventilation system, or by cold surfaces (for example, air going to the floor). This air movement affects thermal comfort. Traction, especially in the head (head, neck and shoulders) and in the legs (ankles, feet, legs), can be uncomfortable. Generally speaking, the temperature considered in the comfort zone will increase with increasing air speed.
What role do other factors play? What temperature should the apartment be in according to the 2021 law?
Thermal comfort also depends on the metabolic rate (activities performed), the clothing the person wears, and the radiant temperature of other surfaces.
Metabolic rates (activities) and clothing will vary from person to person, even if everyone wears the same clothes and performs the same activities. Where possible, allow individuals to control the choice of clothing and the pace of work.
Sources of radiant temperatures include floors and windows. For example, poorly insulated windows can create a cold zone in the winter, and sunlight can create a warm zone in the summer. People are most sensitive to warm ceilings and cold vertical surfaces such as windows. Floor surface temperatures that are too high or too low and differ from air temperatures also contribute to thermal discomfort.
Guide to average room temperature and thermostat settings
The average room temperature in a home in Russia in winter is around 18 ° C, while central heating thermostats are usually set at around 20 ° C. Of course, this is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to how we heat our houses. In this guide, we will briefly describe how we heat our homes in the RF.
Have the average indoor temperatures changed?
Over the past 40 years, the average room temperature in the RF has increased significantly, mainly due to the wide dispersion of district heating and improved insulation standards. Back in 1970, the average internal temperature of a house in the Russian Federation during the winter months was 12 ° C. Decades later, this rose to 18 ° C.
What is the typical living room temperature in winter?
While average indoor temperatures have risen sharply, the reality remains that some people keep their homes hot, some cold, and most of us are somewhere in between. In the graph below, we see the temperature distribution in living rooms. While the majority of homes are in the reasonable 18-21 ° C range, there are a surprising number of homes with unnecessarily hot and cold living rooms.
What is healthy room temperature?
The baseline heat level required for a healthy and well-dressed person is 18 ° C. This standard is recognized by the World Health Organization and is the minimum standard in the latest UK Cold Weather Plan.
Here are some basic criteria for room temperature:
- > 24 ° C - cardiovascular risk
- 18-21 ° C - comfortable temperature
- 18 ° C - minimum for comfort
- 12-16 ° C - respiratory risk
- <12 ° C - cardiovascular risk
- 9 ° C - risk of hypothermia
What is the typical thermostat setting?
The average thermostat setting in the RF is 20.1 ° C. It may be a simple number to remember, or it may sound right, but by far the most popular setting in a recent home survey was 20 ° C. In fact, we we seem to like round numbers, as 15 ° C and 25 ° C seem to slightly curve the perfectly natural bell curve. 30 ° C is also a wonderful blowout.
How many hours a day do we heat our homes?
While it is okay in UK homes to set the thermostat around 20 ° C, most households do not keep heating around the clock - this can lead to higher heat losses and therefore higher bills. In fact, on average, houses in the Russian Federation are heated for about eight hours a day in winter; ten hours a day for houses that have only one heating period and seven hours for the more typical two heating periods. The average value for a thermostat in the RF is 20.1 ° C.
When do we heat our homes?
About 70% of UK homes with central heating heat their homes twice a day and then increase heating from time to time as needed. This is a natural approach as it provides warmth when needed in the morning and evening, but limits heat loss in the evenings and when people are at work. Peaks around 7am and 7pm.
Can smart technology help me control my heating?
In recent years, many new technologies have been developed that can help you better control your heating and possibly save money. These include more sophisticated heat zoning systems and smart thermostats. The smart thermostat allows you to control heating and hot water using your smartphone, tablet or computer anytime, anywhere. This gives you more flexibility and control over your energy consumption and can make your home more comfortable. Used correctly, they can also be a source of energy savings. You can read more on our smart thermostat pages.
Can I save money by controlling my room temperature?
The colder you keep your home, the lower your heating bill will be - simply because there is less heat in the refrigerator compartment. Of course, the better your insulation, the more heat you get for your heating. And, as we've seen, living in a home with temperatures below 18 ° C is not a good idea for your health. So can you save money by enduring a little cooler at home? Even more.
The biggest estimated savings are £ 1,350 per year by lowering the thermostat temperature from 20 ° C to 18 ° C. Of course, this might be too much of a change for you, so we've included a few other ideas.
Ultimately, the purpose of your heating system is to keep you warm. And as you can see from the data, for most people that means temperatures are between 18-21 ° C. The key to doing this on a budget is creating warm spaces when you use them, such as turning on the heating in your living room. when you plan to watch a movie - but not when you're in bed or shopping.
This way you get comfort when you need it most and minimize costs when you are away, sleeping or not using the room.
The temperature norm in the apartment during the heating season in 2021-2022
In our country, many citizens reproach the organizations responsible for the provision of utilities, as well as for the regulation of tariffs for heat supply. This is due to the constant rise in prices, which is reflected in the receipts that come to the owners on a monthly basis. Sadly, growth is not accompanied by an improvement in the quality of services, and often, on the contrary, has a directly opposite tendency. Given the current situation, it is surprising that a person, paying huge bills, is faced with negligence on the part of the house management authorities.
The regulatory legal framework that specifies the issue of temperature standards in apartments during the heating season in 2021-2022 includes GOST and SanPiN.
Attention! If you have any questions, you can consult for free in the chat with a lawyer at the bottom of the screen or call: +7 (499) 938-53-75 Moscow; +7 (812) 425-62-06 St. Petersburg; +7 (800) 350-31-96 Free call for all of Russia.
GOST R 51617-2000 sets the temperature parameters that must be observed in the autumn-spring period of the year. In accordance with GOST, living areas must be warmed up to at least + 18 ° C. In the bathroom, the temperature regime is slightly different - + 25 ° C.
Lower requirements apply to the common property of homeowners (corridors and stairwells) - + 16 ° C.
SanPiN 22.214.171.12445-10 also sets standards for heating. The parameters are indicated in the appendix to the designated standard.
The temperature in the apartment during the heating season according to SanPin in 2021-2022
Comfort is an individual concept. Some residents prefer coolness and some prefer heat. However, GOST denotes the temperature at which normal conditions for life, good health and sanitary safety at home are provided.
In accordance with the standards, the minimum permissible room temperature is + 18 ° C, and the maximum is + 25 ° C ... The purpose of the premises is important. Premises and auxiliary structures, in which a person spends less than an hour in total, can heat up to only 14-16 ° C (flights of stairs, interior rooms, cloakroom).
Dates of the heating season
Heat supply to apartments depends on which heating system is used by the owner of the premises. So, in the case of an autonomous system, the period depends on the desire of the residents themselves, and in a centralized system - on the decision of the CHI, depending on the weather conditions established over a certain period of time.
To start centralized heat supply in 2021-2022, it is necessary to maintain an average daily outdoor temperature of 7 ° C for 5 days. The heating is turned off if the specified conditions are not met.
How to correctly measure the temperature in an apartment during the heating season?
In order to measure the temperature in a room, it is required to follow certain rules, including the need for preparatory procedures:
|Draft||You can freeze not only because of poorly working batteries, but also because of drafts, which reduce the efficiency of heating the room. You need to carefully check how well the windows and interior doors are closed. In addition, measurements made in drafts cannot be considered objective.|
|Measuring instruments||It is enough to have a household thermometer on hand. The main thing is to install it correctly. The measurement is carried out at a distance of a meter from radiators installed on a wall adjacent to the street, as well as at a height of one and a half meters.|
|Measurement confirmation||Measurements made once cannot indicate that the temperature regime in the apartment is violated. That is why it is recommended to take measurements several times. In accordance with GOST, the temperature must be within acceptable values, not allowing more than three degrees at night (during the day, such deviations are unacceptable) .|
|Weather||Measurements are only taken in cold, cloudy weather. Otherwise, the scorching sun will not allow accurate measurements to be made, warming up the room to maximum temperatures.|
The temperature is measured in several rooms at once. Of course, in the case of a one-room apartment, this rule does not apply.
Temperatures below 18 ° C indicate the need to call emergency services.
It is important to remember that an official measurement will be made only if the citizen himself applies on issues not related to repair or maintenance work on heating networks. After measurement, experts form an act.
The equipment by means of which measurements are made must have complete technical documentation. It contains the technical characteristics of the device, as well as a certificate that it has passed the mandatory verification. Equipment requirements are detailed in GOST 30494-2011.
The act contains the following data:
- date of formation;
- housing parameters;
- list of commission members;
- information received by the device;
- visas of members of the commission.
The document is drawn up in two copies. One remains with the specialists, and the second is transferred to the owner of the premises.
How to correctly measure the temperature of the coolant during the heating season?
Water acts as a coolant for a central heating system. In order to understand what temperature it is, it is enough to use several simple ways. So, the first of them is to measure the temperature of the water circulating in the batteries. To solve the problem, the coolant is poured into a glass, where it is directly measured with a thermometer.
The second method is to measure the temperature on the battery. A simple alcohol device, which is fixed on the radiator and closed with a material that does not allow heat to pass, will do.
It is more difficult to make measurements on your own, because professionals use high-precision instruments, consisting of a submersible probe and electronic filling. However, this is real, and without significant errors in the readings.
Temperature rate in a corner apartment
Corner apartments have one peculiarity - the area of their external walls is much higher than that of ordinary apartments. This directly affects the room temperature. If we talk about standards, then corner apartments should be heated to an optimal temperature of twenty degrees. The specified temperature is set by the rules for the provision of utilities in apartment buildings, approved by the government of the Russian Federation No. 354. Similar requirements are established by GOST R 51617-2000. According to the standard, the optimum temperature in corner apartments should be 20 ° C. In addition, GOST refers to the corresponding SNiP. The temperature should not fall below this mark, and for this, additional heating radiators are installed in rooms adjacent to the street.
Additional devices are provided at the design stage and allow you to maintain the required temperature in the premises and prevent the formation of mold. It is important to note that the premises located on the first and last floors of buildings are exposed to additional temperature loads from the street. So, in the first case, the cold comes from the floor, and in the last - from the ceiling.
Corner room temperature
The mention of corner rooms can only be found in GOST R 51617-2000. As in the case of corner apartments, the minimum temperature is determined based on the additional impact of external factors on the room. If in standard housing it is allowed to heat the living area up to 18 ° C, then in corner rooms this parameter increases by 2 ° C.
When can you file a complaint?
Having carried out his own measurements and making sure that the apartment is cold, the owner must notify the emergency service about this. It does not matter in what form the application will be sent (in writing or by phone). After registering the signal of the tenant, the application is registered and specialists are sent to the address to measure the temperature of the air and heat carriers.
Departure of representatives of housing and communal services is carried out quite quickly. As a rule, this happens no later than half an hour after the call to the dispatch service is received.
After drawing up the inspection report, the tenant receives a copy in his hands, which indicates the presence of violations in the provision of utilities to him.
Thanks to this document, the landlord will be able to defend his rights in a dialogue with the management company, as well as file a complaint with the authorities concerned, including the housing office.
Step-by-step instructions and necessary documents when filing a complaint
In order to correctly draw up a claim, it is necessary to prepare a sample and follow the rules of document flow for such papers. The claim consists of a header, the text of the document itself and the applicant's visa.
The following information is included in the complaint for non-compliance with the temperature in the apartment during the heating season in 2021-2022.
In the header:
- name of the addressee;
- applicant's data;
- details of the contract for the provision of utilities;
- reference to the microclimate standards in residential premises;
- information about the results of measurements and an act (with the attachment of the act);
- consequences of violations (compensation);
- the requirement for the provision of adequate quality services.
In the center of the document, its type is indicated, that is, the claim.
At the beginning of the text, it is usually said about the grounds on which the company provides heating services and the requirements for their quality. First of all, reference should be made to the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation.
After that, the violations identified during the measurements and noted in the act are described.
Next, you need to identify your requirements. Firstly, it is necessary to indicate the need to eliminate the problem as soon as possible, and secondly, to recalculate the payment for the provision of heat supply services.
The document is printed in two copies, which are signed by the owner of the premises and transferred to the housing and communal services authority. One copy remains with the secretary of the organization, and the second is stamped with the incoming number and date.
You can download a sample complaint for non-compliance with the temperature in the apartment during the heating season in 2021-2022 here.
Possible outcomes of the complaint
If the housing and communal services organization has not complied with the requirements set forth in the claim, then more drastic measures should be taken and write to higher authorities. So, a repeated complaint can be sent to:
- Regional Housing Inspectorate;
- The prosecutor's office;
The designated authorities have the right to consider the complaint within thirty days. However, even before the end of the proceedings, the owner guarantees that the housing and communal services company will stir up and try to correct the situation.
It is important to remember that appeal to higher authorities can be carried out not only after consideration of the claim in the primary instance. The document can be sent to both addresses in parallel.
Responsibility of housing and communal services and the Management Company for violation of the temperature regime.
According to the decree under number 354, organizations providing utilities for heat supply may allow breaks associated with heating residential premises, limited by the following time characteristics:
- up to a day within a month;
- at a time up to 16 hours, if the temperature is in the range from 12 ° C to 18 ° C;
- at a time up to 8 hours, if the temperature is in the range from 10 ° C to 12 ° C;
- At the same time up to 4 hours, if the temperature ranges from 8 ° C to 10 ° C.
There are cases when heat supply does not stop, but the temperature of the coolant does not correspond to the normative. So, at night, in contrast to the daytime, the day is allowed to deviate normative temperatures up to 3 ° C.
In case of deviation from the assumptions established by the legislation, public utilities are responsible for the quality of the services provided. So, the employer of the premises, as well as their owner, has the right to demand compensation in the form of recalculation of fees for the heat consumed.
What compensation can you count on?
Legislation allows the applicant to recover from the Criminal Procedure:
- 0.15% of the heating fee is hourly, beyond the standard that allows heating in apartments;
- 0.15% of the heating fee is hourly, at that time in which the temperature of the room does not comply with the standards.
As for the recalculation, the tenants are entitled to count on a large amount. For example, in the winter time of the year, the Criminal Code exposes the owner for heating by 2700 rubles. In the rooms at the same time it is cold. Not wanting to overpay, the owner of the real estate called the emergency service and carried out a measurement, according to the results of which the act dated December 4th was drawn up. However, the company did not want to resolve the situation and increase the heating of the coolant to the established norms.
Thus, find out the amount of compensation for December is very simple: 2700 x (0.15% x 624 hours) = 2700 x 0.936 = 2527.2 rubles. The owner practically does not have to pay anything for a month and this is true, since he did not receive from the company stated in the quality of service standards. Naturally, such money the Criminal Code and the Housing Communist Party will not return. That is why the next stage of the proceedings will most likely become a lawsuit.
Court decisions were often accepted in favor of the applicant. For example, you can consider the case of a resident of the Perm Territory. She sudes one hundred thirty-six thousand rubles from the Criminal Code.
It all started with the fact that the owner of housing filed a lawsuit on the basis that the temperature in its apartment in two winter periods did not exceed 15 ° C. Rules also require its maintenance at a level not lower than 18 ° C in residential premises (20 ° C - in angular).
Representatives of the Criminal Code have repeatedly carried out measurements confirming the correctness of the plaintiff. Among other things, the woman fell ill and landed into a medical institution.
The Criminal Code after numerous complaints did not take proper measures and did not recalculate what prompted the victim to resort to the help of the court.
During the proceedings of the Criminal Code, they tried to prove that they did not have a contract with the plaintiff for the provision of services on heat supply. However, the city court decided in favor of the owner of the housing, since it was the company that was responsible for the transfer of funds to resource-supplying organizations, which was confirmed by the collective agreement of the owners on the management of the house and the Criminal Code, as well as an agreement with the territorial management of housing and communal services.
Having studied all the materials, the court ruled that the Criminal Code should be recalculated for the Civil Citizal for 77 thousand rubles, to pay 38.5 thousand rubles as a fine and 20 thousand rubles as moral harm.
In terms of providing heat supply services, standards and deadlines, the heating season can be stumbled upon acts of the subject going into a section with generally accepted standards. In many respects, it depends on the climatic features of the territory in which the person lives.
In addition, starting in 2014, the regions began to stand out due to the differences in tariffs for heat supply. So, the difference between receipts in one region can be strikingly different from the fees charged in another subject.
What temperature should be in the apartment is controlled at the state level.
The regulations, detailed in the laws, must be provided by the management companies. For failure to comply, they face severe punishment.
According to law
What should be the rate of t during the heating season
SanPiN has established requirements for the temperature regime in the cold and warm seasons. In winter, the standards are as follows (see table).
|Premises||Optimal, ° С||Permissible, ° С|
|a guest room||20-22||18-24|
Construction features of apartment buildings, wear and tear of communications lead to the fact that the first, last floors are colder than others. Moreover, when residents complain to the Criminal Code of inconsistencies, these features (cold basement, attic) justify non-compliance with the temperature regime. This is absolutely wrong.
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The norms for the heating season established by the state apply to living quarters, regardless of location, floor. Temperature readings below the permissible are impermissible, but above the specified level, they can be, but not more than 4 degrees.
There is a requirement to install special heating systems to evenly distribute heat in the floors of the first floors. The owners should not be influenced by whether they have a brick house or a panel house.
IMPORTANT! Utilities are required to maintain acceptable temperature limits in all apartments that are charged for maintenance.
The law sets the bar for the optimal room temperature, but everyone will have their own comfortable one. Objectively, the feeling of comfort at certain temperatures depends on factors:
- The age of the person. Babies, the elderly are more thermophilic, they need to keep the temperature above average.
- Floor. Usually women prefer to stay in warmer rooms than men.
- Individual characteristics. Someone loves coolness, for someone comfort lies in warmth.
When the UK maintains the regime at the proper level in houses, it will not be difficult to create comfortable conditions and adjust the temperature by a couple of degrees. For this, there are numerous climate control systems, air conditioners, heaters.
Air temperature standards according to GOST
The temperature parameters of residential premises are regulated by a regulatory act - SanPiN 126.96.36.19945-10, GOST R 51617-2000 Housing and utilities and general technical conditions, where the temperature regime of rooms is regulated from 18 ° C in winter, from 20 ° C - in summer. There is a standard in Government Decree No. 354 on corner rooms and cold regions, where a different permissible norm is adopted.
The standard air temperature in residential premises is set at least + 18 ° C (in corner rooms + 22 ° C), in areas with the coldest five-day period (0.92) -31 ° C and below, the temperature regime is set at + 20 ° C ( in corner rooms + 22 ° С). Failure to comply with the standard, and not the comfortable thermal regime is considered a violation.
In corner apartments
Previously, GOST did establish special rules for corner apartments - 2 degrees higher than usual. To date, the temperature regime is established and regulated by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 05/06/2011 No. 354.
The creators of SNiP 23-02-2003 believe that the temperature difference between the internal air and the surface outside should be no more than 4 degrees. That is, if the minimum limit for a dwelling is 18 ° C, then the wall on average should not be colder than 14.
When this rule is violated, it can be concluded that the house is not sufficiently insulated, perhaps the seams need to be updated. This should be taken care of by the management company serving the structure.
In accordance with SNiP , the temperature of the floor surface in residential premises must be at least 16 ° C (as a rule, it exceeds the minimum allowable and ranges from 18 to 20 ° C).
SNiP 41-01.2003 establishes the normal temperature for heated floors:
- 26 ° С for premises where people are constantly;
- 31 ° С for premises where people stay temporarily.
It is recommended for childcare facilities to maintain the floor at a maximum rate of 24 ° C.
Where to go
Small deviations from the norm may go unnoticed, but if the tenants are constantly freezing in the apartment, this indicates a violation of obligations by the utilities. Moreover, when the payment for heating and maintenance is charged in full. Then it is necessary to complain about the poor maintenance of the house.
If t is below the allowable
If the house is cold, the temperature is recorded below the standard in autumn or winter, you need to inform the emergency dispatch service about this. A complaint is written to the head of the Criminal Code, where the claims are listed, the air temperature in the living rooms, kitchen, bathroom is indicated, and a requirement is made to bring it in line with the norms.
The Criminal Code is given 30 days to respond. During this period, utilities must find out which of them is responsible for the cooling of the house. If the heating network, at the point of demarcation of the balance sheet, is not hot enough, then this is a matter of the resource supplying organization that heats the room. If heat is lost in the house, then the Criminal Code should solve the problem.
TIP! It is better to make a collective complaint from the residents of the entrance or house.
If the wall freezes
When it is so cold that the end walls freeze through, you need to act quickly. It is necessary to contact the head of the management company with a claim, where to describe the problem, demand to insulate the wall, thereby restoring the temperature balance. At the same time, call a representative of the Criminal Code, draw up and receive an act of freezing the wall.
If, after the due date, the Criminal Code does not take action, it will be necessary to involve public authorities in solving the problem:
- The State Housing Inspectorate is an executive body that controls the activities of public utilities. Inspectors initiate an inspection, make a submission to eliminate violations, and impose a fine on the service organization.
- Rospotrebnadzor is a multidisciplinary organization specializing in the described situation. Failure to comply with the terms of the contract by the Criminal Code in combination with the risk of increased humidity, the spread of mold, fungus from a frozen wall is the competence of this service. After checking the activities of the Criminal Code, employees will be obliged to bring the house to the requirements of the law, if there are grounds, they will fine the management.
- The prosecutor's office is a supervisory authority, whose employees begin checking a legal entity only if there have been appeals to previous organizations. Or they address the complaint of tenants to the competent authorities to resolve the issue.
- The court is the last step that is taken if other state structures are powerless or if it is necessary to compensate for material and moral damage.
The document is drawn up in a standard manner. Several methods of delivery to their addressee are allowed. You can bring it yourself, register two copies, keep one for yourself as a proof. Also, complaints are sent by registered mail with notification or online through the State Service website.
What is the responsibility of utilities
The degree of responsibility of the Criminal Code depends on the severity of the offense, the consequences.
If the utilities immediately respond to the complaint, eliminate the violations, there will be no consequences. When residents have to involve government authorities, punishment is inevitable. The easiest is administrative responsibility, a fine.
If the owners have damaged property, their health has suffered, they can associate this with the low temperature of the house and there is an evidence base for this, then civil proceedings and damages cannot be avoided.
When the consequences are grave, then the sanctions are possible up to criminal.
Details about degrees:
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A favorable temperature regime in the house is an important criterion for the comfortable living of people. Many would like to know what the temperature should be in the apartment according to the norms of housing and communal services in winter. In this article, we will consider the temperature standards for all kinds of rooms, what factors affect the temperature, and what to do if the temperature in the apartment does not meet the standards.
Temperature norms in winter in the apartment
Living quarters should be heated when the average outside air temperature per day is less than 8 degrees. The heating season ends at temperatures above this mark. The minimum temperatures are:
- 20 ° C - rooms located in the corners of the house;
- 18 ° C - living rooms;
- 18 ° C - combined bathroom;
- 14 ° C - storage room;
- 16 ° C - corridors between apartments;
- 25 ° C - bathroom;
- 18 ° C - kitchen area;
- 16 ° C - lobby;
- 5 ° C - elevators;
- 4 ° C - attic room.
Despite the fact that the norms are determined by special documents, they may differ depending on how the apartment is located in the house. According to GOST, air temperature indicators from 24.00 to 5.00 hours can decrease by 3 degrees. The room temperature should be measured in a room one and a half meters from the floor, as well as 1 meter from the wall that borders the street.
Indicators may exceed the established rate, but only by 4 degrees. If the temperature does not correspond to the norms, for each hour the payment for services is reduced by 0.15 percent. If the heating is weak, anyone can apply to the management company or emergency dispatch service with a request to resolve the issue. The company sends a technician or engineer to measure the room temperature.
Checking the heating system ends with the creation of an act (in duplicate). One copy remains with the owner of the apartment. If the complaint is confirmed, the utility is obliged to correct the situation. During the violation of the norms, the payment for heat is recalculated. If you noticed that the room temperature indicators do not comply with the established standards, do not hesitate with the application. The recalculation for heat will begin only from the day when the act was drawn up.
It is important to emphasize that minor interruptions in heat supply are allowed. A break in heating is possible for a total of 24 hours per month. The heating supply to the living quarters should not be interrupted for more than 16 hours continuously.
Factors affecting temperature
The indoor microclimate is formed under the influence of several factors, namely:
- Season. The heating system is only used in winter;
- Climate conditions also affect indoor temperatures. They differ in each region;
- Features of the house and its technical parameters;
- The presence of repairs in the apartment;
- The number of people living in an apartment also affects the heat.
I must say that the indoor climate depends on the season. In many countries, including Russia, temperatures from 18 degrees to 22 degrees are considered optimal. The humidity level outside plays an important role. The indicators indicated in the GOST are considered to be general, but the exact indicators may vary for different settlements.
The height of the ceilings, the availability of furniture, the location of the apartment and rooms, the presence of insulation on the walls, the number of storeys are of great importance. GOST standards do not take into account the human factor, and it is known that women need a higher temperature in the room. Children are more susceptible to overheating and cooling.
Before you send a request for a call to a specialist, assess the microclimate in different rooms. If the temperature readings in the room are normal, and you are cold, recalculation is not made. If you find a discrepancy in the indicators, talk to other residents. A collective application or complaint is always more effective.
Temperature measurements will be objective only if a number of conditions are met:
- Measurements are not carried out in sunny weather, since the room is heated by the sun's rays;
- Check how tight the room is. Heat leakage is often due to crevices.
Usually the temperature is measured in two rooms. The measurement is carried out at some distance from the floor, heating devices and from the outer wall of the room. If you find deviations in the data from the norm, contact the emergency dispatch service. It happens that the cessation of the supply of heat occurs due to an accident. The dispatcher is obliged to accept the application and send a specialist to you, who will take measurements using a device supplied with technical documents, and then draw up an act. The act reflects the following information:
- The composition of the commission;
- Date of registration;
- Room parameters;
- Data on temperature readings in rooms and other rooms;
- The data of the measuring device itself;
- Signatures of the members of the commission.
The act is drawn up in two copies. The owner of the apartment keeps 1 copy for himself, on its basis the person has the right to demand a recalculation. If there is a draft in the apartment, you do not have to rely on recalculation. Before submitting an application, check the tightness of the windows, make sure there are no cracks in the room. Call the master in cloudy weather, when the apartment is not warmed up by the sun, and the real indicators are not distorted.
Where to go in case of violation of the temperature regime?
As you already understood, the first step towards solving the problem is to measure the temperature yourself. Then you need to call the control room. It so happens that the problem is solved by removing blockages from the pipes. If the team did not find the reason, write an application for measuring the temperature and drawing up an act, it is submitted to the management company.
Suppose the company reacted quickly, and you have a statement that the temperature does not meet the stated requirements. Deficiencies identified during the measurement must be corrected. You can write a statement to:
- Management company;
- Housing Inspectorate (file a complaint against a housing company);
- Rospotrebnadzor (write a complaint against the two previous instances);
- Federal Antimonopoly Service;
- The Prosecutor's Office (complain about three instances, backing up with evidence of the appeal);
If you did not receive help at each of the stages, you must certainly keep the answers from the previous authorities, which will serve as a reason for going to court. When you file complaints against a particular authority, make out 2 copies. One should stay with you with a note that the document was accepted and registered.
To go to court, you will need:
- Copies of all applications with notes of receipt, answers;
- Application to the service organization;
- Checking act.
The service organization is obliged to eliminate the deficiencies by a court decision and recalculate the payment for heating. Remember that you can file a claim in court only after you have gone through the previous instances. The proceedings always begin with the management company or the housing office. A complaint about poor heating performance is filed in the name of the boss. When you make an application with a request to measure the temperature, you must enter into it:
- The name of the management company, full name of the director;
- The word "Application";
- Then you must state the request “Measure the air temperature in apartment number ___. It is necessary to indicate the temperature for self-measurements;
- Further, there should be normative acts, namely the Government Decree 354;
- Date and signature.
When the compiled measurement act is in hand, you can proceed further.
Contacting the management company
In the absence of heating throughout the house, residents can write a collective statement. Before drawing up the document, make sure that the neighbors are not making repairs or shutting off the heating. If the riser is hot and the batteries in the room do not heat up, it means that air has entered the system, and the problem can be solved quickly.
A complaint about insufficient heating must have good reasons, for example:
- The heating season has started, but you are not getting it;
- The heating system does not work for a long time, or it works intermittently;
- Heat is supplied, but it is weak.
Any complaint gets more attention if it comes from several people rather than one. The document is drawn up in any form. It must reflect the data and contacts of the tenant, the name of the company and the data of the manager, as well as a request to fix the problems, reimburse damages and recalculate the payment under article 29 of the Law "On" Protection of Consumer Rights ".
Include in the text of the appeal information that you are paying the bills regularly, attach a drawn up act and a receipt for payment for the last month to the paper. The appeal is made out in two copies, one of which remains with you with a note on the acceptance of the document. If the management company gives a formal answer and does not correct the situation, save it and proceed further.
Application to the housing inspectorate
It often happens that tenants are unable to achieve a solution to the issue in the management company. In this case, you must contact the housing inspectorate with a complaint against the management company and a request to take action. Usually, such an appeal is decided in favor of the tenants.
You must attach to the application a copy of the appeal to the management company, an act with measurements, a receipt for payment, a response from the management company, if any. The complaint is sent by registered mail or in person.
On the website of the housing inspection, you can fill out an electronic application form. A form will open in front of you, in which all the necessary information is entered. Typically, a response will be received within 30 days. If he does not satisfy you, contact Rospotrebnadzor.
Complaint to Rospotrebnadzor
You send an application to this authority with all documents and answers from previous instances. The complaint form can be free. First you need to find out the data of the head in a particular region and write a statement in his name.
The "header" of the document indicates the data of the regional office of the head of Rospotrebnadzor, as well as the data of the applicant, the essence of the problem is stated in the main part. Attach to the document an act on the measurements taken and all the statements drawn up.
Lack of heating can lead to the fact that residents are sick, and things become unusable. You can reflect these facts in the letter, if they took place. For this organization, residents must prepare meeting minutes. The complaint is considered within 5 days. You can send it over the Internet, submit it in person, or by registered mail. Be sure to attach all copies of your documents.
Claim to the Federal Antimonopoly Service
Such a service is another opportunity to solve your problems. She is not directly involved in solving problems with heating, but monitors the activities of commercial and non-profit organizations. Many people do not even suspect that they can send a statement to the FAS and obtain verification of the offender.
The structure will monitor the implementation of the law. The complaint is filed against the heating network. And rest assured that she will not be overlooked. FAS organizes checks to determine violations. If, as a result of the checks, the organization fixes violations, the company will incur administrative liability in the form of a fine.
Perhaps you will not achieve a solution to the issue, but stir up the authorities that do not fulfill their duties.
Complaint to the prosecutor's office
It is possible to make a complaint only if the issue has not been resolved after contacting all previous instances. The complaint is submitted in person, on the "Gosuslugi" portal, but upon registration or by mail.
This body examines the application within 1 month. The claim must be substantiated and supported by copies of all previous complaints. Despite the fact that the text is written in free form, you may be denied acceptance of the application if it contains threats to the previous authorities, swear words or emotional connotation. The application cannot be made in capital letters or in Latin.
It certainly contains:
- Your details and address of the apartment;
- The date of the onset of heat problems;
- Description of all steps taken;
- Air temperature.
An application to the prosecutor's office is accepted if you have a passport and a copy of all documents for the apartment. After the inspection, the prosecutor's office will give an exhaustive answer.
Those people who could not achieve recalculation of payments and compensation for damage file a claim. The application must be submitted at the place of residence, evidence of inaction and all papers from previous instances are attached to it.
The court decision can force the management company to fulfill its obligations. Usually, citizens file a claim themselves or draft it with the help of a lawyer. Practice shows that in most cases a claim helps to achieve justice.
The court will oblige the defendant to fulfill his obligations. The complaint is filed after you have completed all of the above steps. If the management company started heating later than the deadline, you can go to court to demand compensation for the damage incurred and court costs.
The application is made to the district court or the magistrate. You can submit an application if the cost of the claim is more than 50,000 rubles. This includes the cost of damaged property or treatment, repairs, and the recalculation of heating bills. The content of the application is spelled out in article 131 of the Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation.
We offer you forms and examples of applications to various authorities that will help you correctly draw up the paper.
Responsibility of utilities
The second section of the "Rules and Norms for the Technical Operation of the Housing Stock" contains information that public utilities must maintain communication systems in houses. They are responsible for the normal operation of heating systems and for warmth in apartments.
Housing and communal services are obliged to control the temperature in the coolant, assess the condition of the networks and draw up an inspection report in time at the request of the tenant. Acts can be used as evidence when applying to other authorities.
I must say that the company supplying heat is only responsible for the temperature in the coolant. After the point of connection to the apartment building, the responsibility for the malfunction lies with the utilities. They are obliged to recalculate and reduce the payment by 0.15% for each hour of lack of optimal heat.
If the tenants have made a statement of claim, the responsibility lies with the utilities. They are obliged to pay for moral and material damage if the health of citizens or their belongings has suffered as a result of the lack of heat. Remember that the temperature in the apartment in winter must comply with the standards. Any violation is a reason to take competent actions and quickly solve the problem.
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Many users are faced with a problem when a fairly low air temperature is maintained in their apartments in winter. As a rule, a similar situation can happen to any person, and therefore it is important to know what to do in such situations and how to protect your rights and interests.
What should be the temperature in an apartment for human health
It's not a secret for anyone that different levels of air temperature are maintained in different rooms of the apartment. This is done so that the person is as comfortable as possible, and no unexpected problems and complications arise for his state of health.
In many ways, a comfortable temperature regime will directly depend on what functions a particular room is endowed with:
- To avoid possible headaches and insomnia, it is necessary to set the temperature in the range of 17-19 degrees. Therefore, it is precisely this temperature regime that is established in residential premises.
- In the kitchens there are a lot of equipment that can additionally heat the air. To avoid overheating, the minimum allowable temperature here must be within 18 C.
- Women are more thermophilic than the stronger sex. For them, the temperature in the room should be higher by an average of 2-3 C. The same rule applies to children.
In general, the human body will function normally at temperature parameters of 18-25 C, which is why such a temperature level is maintained in the premises. In a corner apartment, this figure will be 3 degrees higher.
SanPin norm of temperature in the apartment during the heating season
The permissible temperature standard in an apartment during the heating season is approved at the highest legislative level and is regulated with an eye to the requirements of GOST R 51617-2000 “ZhKU.
General technological conditions ". Based on this standard, the average values of the permissible temperature level in the room have been calculated. Depending on the room, the temperature should be between 18-25 C.
So, according to the approved standards, the maximum permissible temperature regime must correspond to the following values:
- for a living room, the temperature should be at least 18 C;
- rooms with a high level of humidity (bathroom, toilet) - at least 20 C;
- basements and attic rooms - 4 C;
- inter-apartment corridor and flights of stairs - from 14 to 16 C;
- SanPin norm for storerooms - 12 C.
- The temperature in the bathroom
The bathroom has a special place in the apartment, as high humidity is always recorded here. Taking into account this fact, a recommendation was approved at the highest state level, according to which the average air temperature in the bathroom, according to sanitary standards, should be significantly higher than in other rooms.
So, according to the approved standard GOST R 51617-2000, the normal air temperature in the bathroom and toilet should be within 25 C. However, the standard also takes into account the speed of the air flow, which must be at least 0.2 m / s. Taking into account this parameter, the legislator has set the temperature in the bathroom at 18-26 C.
Why can it be cold in the apartment
Despite the approved standards, we often have to deal with situations when the real air temperature in the room does not even correspond to the minimum threshold according to the standards. Of course, if the apartment is cold, the tenants feel discomfort and try to find the reason why they are forced to freeze.
As practice shows, determining the cause of the cold is essential, as it allows you to determine the best methods for correcting the problem. Let's designate the main factors that can affect the optimal temperature regime in living quarters:
- improper design of the heating system, due to which heat simply does not enter the room;
- there are cracks in doorways and windows that allow cold air to pass through and negatively affect the formation of a microclimate in living quarters;
- the balcony area is not well insulated;
- insufficient thickness of wall ceilings, due to which, at prolonged low temperatures, the walls freeze and begin to cool the room;
- deterioration of radiators and other elements of the heating system;
- the presence of drafts in the apartment;
- the central heating system demonstrates insufficient power;
- emergency and repair work at heating points, carried out in the winter.
Low temperature - how and where to complain
If you are faced with a problem that the battery remains cold in your apartment, the first step is to find out the reason why you are experiencing discomfort, while continuing to pay bills for heat on time.
Therefore, the investigation of the problem must be started by contacting the management company or the housing office. At the request of the consumer, answers will be given, and if it turns out that the reason for the cold snap in the apartment is not related to emergencies and repairs on the heating main, then it will be necessary to send a statement to the Criminal Code. After it is accepted, your apartment will be visited by the specialists of the Criminal Code, whose duties will be entrusted with carrying out a complete inspection of the heat supply system in residential premises and measuring the current air temperature.
Based on the results of the inspection, a special act will be drawn up, which will indicate the results of all operations performed, and the date of the visit. In addition, the inspection will make it possible to identify the real reason due to which the uncomfortable temperature is maintained in the apartment.
One day is given to eliminate all violations of the Criminal Code. However, if it turns out that the cause of the heat loss is serious, and the premises need a more thorough analysis, then 7 days will be allocated to solve the problem.
If after the specified period the situation has not changed for the better, and the air temperature in the apartment still does not meet the minimum SanPin standards, then you can file a claim with higher authorities.
So, a complaint about a low temperature, which must comply with GOST standards, can be sent to the following authorities:
- housing inspection for the settlement where the owner of the apartment lives;
- consumer protection society;
- the prosecutor's office.
Let's pay attention to a small nuance. If the document is submitted to higher authorities, it must be supported by an evidence base. So, the complaint must be accompanied by copies of the inspection report of the premises from the Criminal Code, witness testimony, personal data of the applicant and much more.
If the apartment is cold, what kind of compensation can you expect?
Many users are interested in the question of how much compensation they can get if their home is cold. During the period when the air temperature in the apartment is below the established minimum, a reduced utility tariff for heat payment will be applied to the consumer.
There is a rule according to which for every hour when GOST norms are not observed, the level of the tariff rate is reduced by 0.15%.
In addition, if desired, the consumer can apply to the court with a claim for the payment of moral compensation for the inconvenience incurred. However, the amount of compensation in this case will not be too large.
Is it possible to win a court in a lawsuit about cold batteries in an apartment
As the court practice shows, the number of cases about cold batteries in apartments is growing every year. It should be pointed out that if the homeowner is able to prepare a solid evidence base, he may well win a lawsuit and bring to justice the Management Company, which is entrusted with the responsibility for maintaining the houses.
As an example, let us give a real situation that occurred in the city of Kursk. Citizen A summoned a commission from the Criminal Code to check the temperature regime in his premises. As a result, it turned out that the temperature in his apartment is 3 C lower than the established norms. Due to the constant cold, Citizen A fell ill and cannot attend work.
After examining all the circumstances of the case, the court decided that the claim of citizen A would be satisfied, since the Criminal Code performed its duties in bad faith, and the problems arose due to the negligent attitude of the Criminal Code employees to their professional duties. In addition, the court took into account the long-term illness of the plaintiff, and therefore ordered the Criminal Code to pay him compensation in cash.
Igor Biteikin, Managing Partner Law firm "Biteikin and partners"
The amount in payment receipts increases on a quarterly basis, especially during a crisis period for the country. But at the same time, the quality of utilities leaves much to be desired. Times are tough for tenants when the heating is turned off. In such a situation, management companies responsible for providing hot water supply to apartment buildings often work in bad faith and strive to evade responsibility.
Of course, a lot depends on the preferences of the residents - some like it colder and are content with a low temperature of 18 ° C, others prefer cozy warmth and 24-25 ° C instead of thick sweaters and socks. But you need to know what temperature should be in our apartment according to legislative acts , since not only the health and well-being of the family depends on this, but also the budget.
The temperature standard in the apartment is contained in " GOST R 51617-2000. Housing and communal services. General specifications ". These are the values required to calculate the maximum output of the heating devices. Stairways in residential buildings should have a temperature of 14-20 ° C. This is the space that residents use for a short time, no more than an hour and are dressed in outerwear.
In the inter-apartment corridors, as well as in the lobbies, the temperature is 16-22 ° C. In hallways, living rooms and kitchens with gas or electric stoves, the temperature is 18-25 ° C. These premises are intended for permanent residence (i.e. more than 4 hours). Highest temperature 24 ° C - valid for bathroom calculations. Also, the norm is regulated Sanitary rules and SanPiN .
Medical standards for temperature conditions in a residential area
A little about what the optimal temperature should be in the house according to medical recommendations. The norms for living quarters are 22 ° C. This temperature provides high thermal comfort with an air humidity of 30%. Higher room temperatures can irritate the respiratory tract, produce mucus, and become susceptible to bacteria and viruses in the nose and throat. The only exception is the bathroom, where water vapor rises, and even higher temperatures do not threaten health.
When the child is at home, the temperature in the apartment should be raised by at least 1 degree, and in the bathroom or another room where he bathes, up to 28 degrees. In adult bedrooms, the temperature can be slightly cooler than in the living room - about 20 ° C. This figure guarantees deeper sleep and, therefore, better rest.
Heat rate control
In order to maintain the above recommendations and to minimize heating costs, it is necessary to properly control the heat norms, taking care of the thermal insulation of the house. It is necessary to seal the window and door frames. Do not cover radiators in the room, do not paint them with a thick layer of paint, and do not hang thick window curtains over them (heaters are usually installed under windows). Place furniture and equipment at a minimum distance of 1 meter from radiators.
It is recommended to regulate the temperature schedule of the heating system in individual rooms using manual or electronic thermostats. When installed even on an old heater, the electronic head can be adjusted to a temperature of up to 0.5 degrees, and program the heat output for a whole week, taking into account the time of day and the habits of local residents.
Modern thermostats will also adjust the heat output in accordance with external conditions - warming or cooling outside, sunlight, etc. You do not need to completely turn off the heat, all you need to do is to lower the temperature, for example, by setting the economy mode to 15 ° C. A decrease in temperature even by 1 ° C increases heat savings by 5-7.5%.
Factors affecting temperature
The temperature readings in the apartment are influenced by many factors, primarily external. They fluctuate due to the following conditions:
- turning off the heating;
- climatic features of the place;
- change of seasons;
- individual features of individual apartments.
The heating temperature schedule also depends on where the property owners live. For example, in the northern latitude, it will differ from the southern climate. The influence of factors such as atmospheric pressure and outdoor humidity also affect the normal value of the heat supply system in any month.
As the seasons change, the microclimate in the living rooms also differs. For example, during the winter months the temperature will be lower and during the hot season it will rise. When in the spring they stop supplying heat to the radiators, observing the shutdown schedule, the temperature in the apartment also drops. For middle latitudes, the optimal value in winter is about 22 degrees, and in summer - 25 degrees. Although at first glance, the difference of three degrees is insignificant, but it affects the well-being of everyone living in an apartment or private house.
Indoor climate control
When heating shutdowns occur, the temperature regime in the apartment must be monitored for the comfort of all citizens living in it. There are people who feel comfortable and comfortable in the hot months, they do not need to install climate control equipment. Also, some in the winter cold constantly ventilate the room. But all the requirements of the average inhabitant are reflected in the current regulations for any heat supply company for which a central heating device shutdown schedule is set. After all, hypothermia, like overheating, has a negative effect on human health.
Among other things, norms also depend on gender. Women require higher temperature readings than men. Extremely carefully you need to observe the temperature regime in the apartment where the children live. They cannot yet regulate their temperature, therefore they are prone to rapid overheating and freezing compared to adults. As a result, the heat rate for them should be stable and be about 22 degrees.
In accordance with the current sanitary standards, central temperature control systems must maintain indicators of at least and no more than 22 degrees, and all deviations from this value have a bad effect on well-being.
To maintain normal temperatures, certain conditions must be met. Previously, the temperature was regulated with the help of batteries, and in order to warm up the room more, they used additional heat sources - various electric heaters, convectors, etc. To cool the room, they opened transoms and windows, thus solving the problem.
Today, scientific progress has made it possible to choose any climatic equipment that will provide comfortable conditions in apartments. For example, modern air conditioners not only cool the air flows coming from the street, but also have a heating function. They also have the function of dehumidification when the room is too humid, and purification of the air from harmful compounds.
Existing sanitary standards do not set the temperature of the radiators. It is only important that the temperature in the housing corresponds to certain indicators, which is affected by the differences in the climatic conditions of the respective region. Indicators in the winter months should be no lower than 20 degrees. If this value is less, then the services of the heat supply organization are poor-quality.
At the same time, real estate owners are needed:
- seek to eliminate bad work on the provision of municipal service;
- demand from the management company to recount payments when the heating is unscheduled;
- Carefully close all the slots in the windows and doors;
- buy additional equipment for heating the room;
- Put autonomous thermal devices.
How to increase or decrease the temperature
By GOST The minimum indicator in the apartment must correspond to 15 degrees. With this meaning, even though it is quite difficult and uncomfortable, but management companies believe that all regulations are observed. Because of this, the population is independently engaged in regulating the temperature mode, and when the cold or massive heating disconnects occur, the windows are installed or the windows are tightened. At worst, turn on electric heaters or convectors.
And what to do when the constant temperature in the housing reaches 28 degrees, which is happening at too hot batteries. The highest indicator in the standard is 24 degrees to which an error in 4 degrees is added. When thermostators are installed on the radiator, then there are no questions, you only need to adjust it to the desired figure.
When there are no such devices on the battery, it is not very convenient to discover constantly the windows in the room. If there is a small child in the apartment, then such actions are not out of position, older people are contraindicated. To correct the situation, you can:
- wrap the crane in front of the radiator;
- Put the air recuperator.
When overlapping the ball crane in front of the battery, you will reduce the amount of hot water that is served. The heat recuperator will be allowed to circulate airflows correctly, and the air flow will fall into the housing already heated.
Optimal temperature in the heating season
Kaya is clear from the foregoing, comfortable value in the apartment is established SNIP In 20-22 degrees. Possible indicators are defined within 18-26 degrees, in accordance with the purpose of housing. Kitchen, residential rooms and bathrooms have different norms. The errors correspond to 3 degrees of reduction and 4 degrees of increasing indicators. Unfortunately, according to the current legislative acts, when the apartment is 15 degrees above zero, it is impossible to make complaints to managers. Also at a temperature of 30 degrees, when the battery is heated as much as possible. Here, as they say, - you want to live - I will be able to ripe and address the relevant authorities.
Responsibility of public utilities in violations
According to the law, employers and housing owners have the right to seek an exp for the management companies that are obliged to reduce payment for heating by 0.15 percent per hour of violation of standards. If you calculate, then in 28 days of the inadequate provision of the payment service is reduced to 90 percent. Naturally, utilities themselves do not fulfill this recalculation, so you have to go to courts.
There are many cases when residents of apartment buildings sued the utilities for money for not fully provided or low-quality services. For example, three years ago, Perm region managed to collect 136 thousand rubles from the management company for violating their obligations to provide heat to the apartment. Therefore, you should defend your rights and contact the regulatory authorities.
The management company at the place of residence is obliged to provide the temperature according to the current standards and regulations. As a result, in case of identified cases of non-compliance with the quality of heating services, it is necessary to inform this organization and, if required, draw up an act.
If it comes to a private residential building, then it is necessary to control the supplied heating devices, increasing the efficiency of the batteries or change the radiators to modern efficient devices.